17) for the three varieties in two locations, with

one un

17) for the three varieties in two locations, with

one unit reduction of transcript expression resulting in 0.17 units of chromium reduction. Another pair of transcripts, namely mRNA1119 (GenBank accession number FH569168) and miRNA445 (sequence: 5′-GAGCACGTACCCTGCTTCTCCA-3′), presented a high and positive interaction effect (0.43) with moderate heritability (26.25%) and no environment interaction effect, indicating that they can be used as markers for Torin 1 chemical structure breeding without concern for the specific growing environment. Another smRNA based locus, namely miRNA644 (sequence: 5′-GCTTATCCATATTTGACCCGTTTTT-3′) showed a moderate negative main genetic effect (− 0.25) and heritability (8.53%), but presented a higher negative environment interaction effect (− 0.58 on average) and heritability (16.29%) in Xingyi, which indicated that this marker would be an environment-specific MK-2206 concentration indicator of chromium content. Finally, some metabolites had significant impacts on trait inheritance. For example, Lysine was detected with large individual negative main effects on total sugar content, but positive epistasis effects on this trait in combination with phenylalanine (Table 2). This indicated that high concentration of individual lysine could reduce the concentration of total sugar content in tobacco leaves. One explanation for this observation could be based on the Maillard reaction in vivo [30], which is the result of a chemical reaction between

amino acids and reducing sugar. But when the two kinds of amino acids (lysine and phenylalanine) worked together as a pair, the joint effects (qq) were positive on total

sugar content. Further study is required to confirm this and other associations of the two traits with the metabolomic, proteomic, transcriptomic and genome methylation datasets. Furthermore, the same kind of analysis could be used for additional traits that are of complex inheritance but for which biochemical (mRNA, protein and metabolite) analysis is very salient and as important as just a genome wide association test with random DNA markers. This study was partially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2011CB109306 and 2009CB118404), the Program Ribociclib datasheet of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities of China (“111” Project, B06014), and Research Programs (CNTC-D2011100, CNTC-[2012]146, NY-[2011]3047, QKHRZ [2013] 02). We are grateful for editing from Dr. M. W. Blair and the suggestions of two anonymous reviewers. “
“Rice is one of the most important grain crops and staple foods for more than half of the global population [1]. Improving rice yield is an important means to fight hunger caused in part by a rapidly growing population along with reduced arable land area and occurring climate change and disease. Grain weight is a key component of rice grain yield, which is primarily defined by grain shape that is determined by length, width and thickness.

(2010) were taken directly from that

(2010) were taken directly from that selleck chemicals study using the exact significance and extent criteria described previously. The only modifications made were to limit (mask) the regions so they did not extend beyond relevant anatomical boundaries, as defined in the Talairach atlas (file TT_N27_EZ_ML) included in AFNI (Lancaster et al., 2000). This served to ensure (1) that the functional ROIs did not overlap and (2) that they lay within defined anatomical regions. The ROIs were also restricted to the left hemisphere to help maintain sensitivity to relevant connections while minimizing the number of comparisons. Furthermore,

activation during reading aloud in the previous study (Graves et al., 2010) was exclusively left-lateralized in the inferior frontal, inferior temporal, and middle temporal ROIs. The ITS region (red in Fig. 2A) was spatially bounded by the inferior and middle temporal gyri. The AG (orange in Fig. 2A) was spatially bounded by the

atlas definition of the AG. The pMTG ROI was masked to be spatially bounded by the PS-341 in vivo atlas definition of the MTG. The pSTG ROI was restricted to not extend beyond the atlas definition of the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, and similarly for the pOTS (masked to only include areas within left fusiform gyrus) and IFG (masked to only include areas within the left inferior frontal gyrus) ROIs. Another region, involving temporoparietal cortex in the left posterior Sylvian fissure, also showed an increased BOLD response with decreasing bigram frequency (Graves et al., 2010). We elected not to include this region as an ROI because it has been linked more conclusively with sensorimotor integration during speech articulation (Buchsbaum et al., 2011, Gow, 2012 and Hickok and Poeppel, 2007), a process not of primary interest in this study, and because

expanding the number of ROIs would likely offer Dichloromethane dehalogenase little benefit while at the same time compounding the multiple comparisons problem. The degree to which imageability modulated RT varied widely across individuals, with 11 showing variable amounts of facilitation and 6 showing inhibition, for a range of β-weights between 2.4 and −5.9 (Fig. 1B). This contrasts with the consistency variable, which showed a quite narrow range of effects on RT across participants (β-weights from 1.1 to −1.6). Correlations between the behavioral effect of imageability and DTI pathway volume were examined for each of the ROI pairs of interest in Fig. 2A (and listed in Table 1). Pathways showing significant (corrected q < 0.05) correlations with imageability effects are indicated by solid lines with double-headed arrows in Fig. 2A (and bold font in Table 1), while pathways showing non-significant correlations are indicated by dotted lines. The more imageability facilitated reading aloud, the greater the volume of the pathway through ITS-pMTG ( Fig. 2C, β = 0.863, uncorrected p = 0.005, q = 0.032).

Fishing and harvesting of other marine resources is the primary l

Fishing and harvesting of other marine resources is the primary livelihood of many coastal people [44]. MPAs should benefit local fishers through the spillover of fish and other harvestable species [4]. Research shows that well managed MPAs can lead to fisheries benefits for local communities through increased catch and increased catch per unit effort [31], [45], [46], [47], [48], [49], [50] and [51]. Larger scale commercial fisheries, too, may benefit from the creation of no take zones; however, since spillover tends to occur at smaller spatial scales (on average up to 800 m from MPA boundaries) the

provision of benefits to larger commercial fisheries would most likely require creation of larger MPAs or extensive networks [31] and [45]. learn more However, fisheries benefits may be unequally shared among groups within and between communities [52] and [53]. Though Roscovitine MPAs may benefit local fisheries in the long term, in the short term compensation or alternative livelihood options need to be considered since displacement of rights to access the resource can lead to short-term hardships [50], [54] and [55]. Diversification into alternative livelihoods may also reduce overall pressure on fisheries and the resource base [56]. However, care must be taken in assessing the vulnerability of proposed alternative

livelihoods to future stressors such as climate change [57] and [58]. The development of alternative livelihood programs that benefit local people is an often-advertised benefit of MPA creation that is challenging to achieve in practice. The most often suggested alternative livelihood strategy is tourism, in the form of SCUBA diving, snorkeling, boating, wildlife viewing, historical and cultural tourism, eco-voluntourism, and even recreational fishing P-type ATPase [14], [59], [60], [61], [62] and [63]. Tourism has

significant potential as an MPA financing mechanism [15], [64], [65] and [66] and may lead to economic benefits at a broader scale; however, the level of local community benefit from and involvement in tourism can be minimal. Some MPAs, such as the Great Barrier Reef MPA in Australia [67], Mendes Island MPA in the Mediterranean [68], and Tsitskamma National Park in South Africa [69], have resulted in significant increases in tourism visitation and revenue [51] and [70]. A global study of 78 coral reef MPAs found that 75% of tourism jobs were retained locally [71]. However, a lack of testing for additionality – i.e., measuring the impact of an activity or intervention through comparison with a status quo metric or reference case – does not ensure that these benefits are causally related to the MPA and not just mirroring outside changes.

The bilateral

inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44, 45, 46) was

The bilateral

inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44, 45, 46) was activated with a left hemisphere dominance during AO + MI of movement. Part of this region (left BA 46) was also active during MI of the dynamic balance task. It has been speculated that the Broca region (particularly BA 44) may form part of the mirror neuron system (Grezes et al., 2003), which may also be activated by observation and MI of movement (Gatti et al., 2013). In summary, there is ample evidence that the SMA, premotor cortex, M1, basal ganglia (putamen), selleckchem and cerebellum play a significant role in physically executed balance control (see section above). Now, the current study showed for the first time that these regions can also be activated by AO + MI of a dynamic balance task; MI produced comparable activity in the SMA, putamen and the cerebellum but non-significant activation http://www.selleckchem.com/Proteasome.html of M1 and PMv/d. In contrast, AO did not activate any of these motor areas. Furthermore, for AO + MI and MI, activity was generally greater in the dynamic perturbation task compared to the static standing task. Based on these results it may be argued that best

training effects should be expected when subjects apply MI during AO (AO + MI) of challenging balance tasks. This might be especially relevant for temporarily immobilized patients that want to reduce their risk of falling in the recovery phase after immobilization. However, future research in immobilized subjects has to verify that AO + MI indeed lead to faster regains in skill level. This work

was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF research grant 320030_144016 / 1). “
“Born in 1863, Heinrich Interleukin-3 receptor Sachs was a German neurologist and neuroanatomist who obtained his specialisation in neurology and psychiatry with Carl Wernicke in Breslau (Forkel, 2014). Sachs published on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (1885), aphasia (1893; 1905), and traumatic neurosis (1909), but arguably his most distinctive contribution was in the field of white matter neuroanatomy. Whilst still a doctor in training he spent most of his time looking at series of cross-sections obtained from human brains. This painstaking effort resulted in the publication of the first atlas of the occipital lobe connections in the human brain (Sachs, 1892). Sachs’s atlas contains detailed descriptions of the methodological approaches he employed, which makes the text not always an easy reading; but the figures are beautifully informative and include many previously undescribed tracts.

, 2004 and Rushworth et al , 2002), as volition or self-generated

, 2004 and Rushworth et al., 2002), as volition or self-generated actions (not externally cued) appear to be a common factor across experimental findings. For example, the Bereitschaftspotential – a negative premotor potential recorded over central frontal electrodes in humans – has larger peak amplitudes with self-initiated actions ( Deecke & Kornhuber, 1978); while in monkeys, lesions of the pre-SMA impair the ability to initiate arbitrary movements to obtain a reward, but the effect is ameliorated if the animals

ALK inhibitor are cued with an external tone ( Thaler, Chen, Nixon, Stern, & Passingham, 1995). Unilateral inactivation of monkey pre-SMA with muscimol has been found to induce deficits in sequence learning, but performance of previously well-learnt sequences was left intact (Nakamura, Sakai, & Hikosaka, 1999). This has

led to the suggestion that this might reflect an impairment of the mechanism responsible for updating the association between the correct action given current conditions. Therefore, it is possible that deficits in self-initiated action observed after SMA/pre-SMA disruption might arise from a failure to make the appropriate connection between the action to be initiated in a novel situation ( Nachev et al., 2008). Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has also been employed to measure physiological interactions between pre-SMA VX-809 manufacturer and other brain regions associated with response selection. This has demonstrated that in the presence

of response conflict, pre-SMA facilitates motor-evoked potentials in M1 during action reprogramming (Mars et al., 2009), and suppresses unselected response options (Duque, Olivier, & Rushworth, 2013). TMS over pre-SMA has been associated with an increased delay in the ability to inhibit responses (Cai, George, Verbruggen, Chambers, & Aron, 2012), but there is also evidence that activity in pre-SMA can occur before stopping is initiated, which would be indicative of a role in selecting rather than implementing responses (Swann et al., 2012). However, a caveat of this approach is that TMS stimulation which induces a transient ‘lesion’ may also propagate Dapagliflozin to other brain networks. Similar effects on network function have also been observed following anatomical focal lesions, dependent on the position of the brain area within the network architecture and degree of white matter involvement (Gratton, Nomura, Pérez, & D’Esposito, 2012). Although cognitive control, self-initiated action and sequence learning may not be mutually exclusive functions, providing an overarching framework which can account for the range of such complex behaviour has proven difficult. Due to the extremely rare incidence of focal damage to this brain area in humans, only a very small number of lesion studies of pre-SMA have been reported.

The freshwater station in the River Vistula at Kiezmark (KIE) dif

The freshwater station in the River Vistula at Kiezmark (KIE) differed from the station in the vicinity of the river mouth – ZN2 and the seawater stations E53, MK-8776 order E54 and E62 in that salinities and silicate concentrations were both lower (Table 1). The water temperature (17.3–18.9°C) was relatively constant at all stations. The large differences in salinity (between KIE and ZN2), together with the linear vertical salinity and temperature profiles (down to 20 m depth, data not shown), indicated a mixing of freshwater with the seawater in the river mouth or upstream of station ZN2. The nutrient concentrations were in the micromolar range, but generally 2–25 times higher (except silicates) at the Kiezmark

station (Table 1). At the same station, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon was the highest (5.6 mgC dm−3), but simultaneously less labile. Allochthonous organic matter, as determined by the specific ultraviolet absorbance measurements (SUVA) (the higher the SUVA, the higher the ratio of molecules with aromatic rings and the less labile DOC), had its maximum at the river station KIE, with 18.8 dm−3 gC−1 cm−1 (Table 1). SUVA values (11.6–12.6 dm3 gC−1 cm−1) were the lowest at stations E53, E54 and E62, which potentially indicated DOC of phytoplankton origin. Interestingly, station E54 differed from the neighbouring stations E53 and E62 in terms of its organic nitrogen and silica concentrations.

We suggest that the slightly higher organic nitrogen content and the reduced silica content indicated a local water body. According to the ecohydrodynamic model of the University SCH727965 of Gdańsk (http://model.ocean.ug.edu.pl/, Jędrasik et al. 2008, Kowalewski & Kowalewska-Kalkowska 2011), three days before sampling, a strong south-easterly current along the Hel Peninsula had pushed water masses from the open sea into the inner parts of the Gulf of Gdańsk (Figure 1). The more saline waters at stations ZN2 and E53 may have originated from the open sea, whereas the water around station E54 was a separate ‘aged gulf’ water body. The freshwater Kiezmark station had the most productive phytoplankton community. The concentration

of either chlorophyll a ( Table 1) coincided with the biomass of phytoplankton ( Figure 2) and the highest primary production ( Table 1). Our microscopic inspection detected 67 taxa, of which 32 belonged to green-algae, 10 to cyanobacteria and 8 to diatoms. Quantitatively, 85% of the phytoplankton biomass were diatoms. The dominant species was diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana (77% of the total phytoplankton biomass). Freshwater species were represented by Skeletonema subsalsum (2%) and the green-algae Pediastrum duplex (2%) and Chlamydomonadales (2%). The highest growth efficiency of phytoplankton (assimilation number, AN) was found at the river mouth station ZN2 (Figure 3). This location reflects the direct influence of the River Vistula, where nutrient concentrations were higher compared to the other seawater stations.

Two new channels, leading to more efficient water exchange betwee

Two new channels, leading to more efficient water exchange between the inner lagoon and the outer sea, will be formed according to the projection results. Compared to Scenario 1, an increase in storm frequency has conspicuous effects on coastline change, which are shown in the projection Baf-A1 result of Scenario 2 (Figure 10). Erosion of the coastline is stronger than in Scenario 1 with about 35% more changes on average. The maximum increased retreats on the Darss and the Zingst coastlines are 97 m and 190 m respectively. In contrast to the stronger erosion on most parts of the coast, the growth of the headland

and the Bock area is further developed in Scenario 2 compared to Scenario 1. An increased extension of 150 m of the headland compared to Scenario 1 is predicted in Scenario 2. Such growth is induced by the increased frequency of storms, especially from the west, which scour large amounts of sediment offshore from the shoreline area; these sediments are then gradually transported towards the headland by longshore currents. The increased sedimentation in the Bock area is a combination of storm effects from different

directions (westerly and easterly). The westerly storms induce more deposition in the offshore area by erosion on the Hiddensee coastline, whereas the easterly ones are mainly responsible for erosion on the Zingst coastline, which PD0325901 in vivo provide additional sediment sources for the Bock area. Four new channels are created in Scenario GNAT2 2, two of which are on the Darss coast, one on the Zingst coast and one on Hiddensee. These channels play a

key role in changing the hydrodynamics and turning the inner lagoon system into an open environment that is more vulnerable to storm attack. The effects of accelerated sea level rise (3 mm year−1) on the coastline change are reflected in Scenario 3 (Figure 10). The coastline change caused by such an accelerated sea level rise is even more remarkable than that due merely to increased storm frequency (Scenario 2). Although the coastline of the whole area is facing more changes under the effects of accelerated sea level rise, different parts of the area respond differently. The coastline change on Darss in Scenario 3 is similar to Scenario 2, with an average increased retreat of 45 m compared to Scenario 2. The differences between these two scenarios become distinctive in the headland and the Zingst area. The projected headland in Scenario 3 is much narrower than in Scenarios 1 and 2, even though it is still growing. An increased retreat of about 150 m in the western part and about 165 m in the eastern part of the headland (compared to Scenario 2) is projected in Scenario 3. The ‘thinning’ of the headland is caused mainly by the effects of accelerated sea level rise.

The results from these experiments are presented in Table 4, wher

The results from these experiments are presented in Table 4, where each

shade represents the appearance of the solution evidenced throughout the experiments. Crystallization of the solution (in light gray) was more frequently recorded when 0.25 ml plastic straw was used. Most of the solutions vitrified during cooling; however devitrification was frequently evidenced during warming (in dark gray). Among the 24 vitrification solutions, three Lumacaftor in vivo of them remained vitreous (Table 4, in black color) during both cooling and warming procedures. V2, V16 and V21 solutions were therefore selected for toxicity studies. The effect of toxicity of the vitrification solutions on membrane integrity of zebrafish ovarian follicles is shown in Fig. 1. When ovarian follicles were exposed to V21 solution the membrane integrity (77.9 ± 12.9%) did not differ (P > 0.05) from results obtained in the control group (91.0 ± 6.1%). Ovarian follicles exposed to V16 and V2 showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in membrane integrity compared to the control group. There was significant difference in membrane integrity of ovarian follicles between the room temperature control group and the vitrified groups (Fig. 2). Ovarian follicles showed membrane integrity of 59.9 ± 18.4% when fibreplug and V16 solution MAPK Inhibitor Library supplier were employed. When ovarian follicles were vitrified in V2 the membrane integrity decreased to 42.0 ± 21.0%,

using fibreplug as vitrification device (P < 0.05). After vitrification in V21 solution using plastic straw the largest decrease in membrane integrity was recorded, with a value of only 2.1 ± 3.6%.

Niclosamide Based on these results, V21 solution was not used for the subsequent experiments. The ATP concentration in the follicles declined significantly (P < 0.05) after vitrification. To make the comparisons clearer we normalised the data considering the ATP measured in the control group as 100% ( Fig. 3). Soon after warming, the ATP in the follicles vitrified in V2 declined to 22.0 ± 4.23%. Likewise, the ATP in ovarian follicles vitrified in V16 dropped to 6.9 ± 0.6% ( Fig. 3). Nevertheless, when measured 120 min post-warming the ATP in the ovarian follicles vitrified in V2 (15.1 ± 2.8%) did not differ (P > 0.05) to the ATP concentration recorded immediately after warming. In contrast, a decrease over time was observed in the follicles vitrified in V16 (3.5 ± 0.7%). The photomicrographs shown in Fig. 4 are representative examples of ovarian follicles obtained by confocal microscopy after exposure to JC-1 fluorescent probe. JC-1 was unable to penetrate deep inside the oocytes, therefore the fluorescence remained concentrated at the margins of the granulosa cells layer (Fig. 4AI and AII). Ovarian follicles from the control group displayed a contiguous peripheral aggregation of mitochondria in the granulosa cells that surround the oocytes, with a well-organized distributional arrangement and red fluorescence emission (Fig. 4AI and AII).

This suggests a high peroxide value in the endogenous lipids (∼10

This suggests a high peroxide value in the endogenous lipids (∼100 mmol/kg lipid). In addition, proteins may also carry peroxides equal to 3–22 mmol/kg of protein ( Salminen and Heinonen, 2008). Proteins damaged by free radicals in the presence of oxygen can yield relatively long-lived protein peroxides ( Davies et al., 1995 and Gebicki and Gebicki, 1993), which have been shown to readily degrade to free radicals

upon reaction with iron (II) complex. It is therefore necessary to include them in an assay for hydroperoxide measurements, in particularly in lean meat where the lipid content is low relative to the protein content. With sufficient amounts of efficient antioxidants, meat should be a homoeostatic system which remains reduced Buparlisib manufacturer or without oxidised compounds and reactive components. The aim of this study was: (1) to set up a new model system for measuring

total hydroperoxide values of lean meat and the reactivity of lean meat towards liposomes, BMS-754807 concentration (2) to discover if the lipid peroxides were always dominant over the protein-bound peroxides, (3) to investigate whether the peroxides were stable when incubated over time and at different pH values, (4) to establish the hydroperoxide formation ability in some Norwegian regular diet meats. Chicken muscles (Musculus pectoralis major) were collected on the day of slaughter from a hot boning line, vacuum-packed and frozen at −80 °C. The chicken-SO group was

chicken fed with a wheat-based diet containing 4% soybean oil and 0.003% selenium-enriched yeast tuclazepam (Ultra Bio-logics., Inc., O.S.Y. 2000× containing 2.15 g Se/kg), whereas the chicken-LO group was fed with a wheat-based diet with 2.4% linseed oil, 1.6% rapeseed oil, and 0.04% selenium yeast. Beef muscles (Musculus semimembranosus) were obtained on the day of slaughter from a hot boning line, vacuum-packed and frozen at −40 °C until they could be brought to −80 °C (after 5 days). Pork muscles (Musculus gluteus medius) were collected 1 day after slaughter from the cold boning line, vacuum-packed, and frozen at −80 °C. The pig group was homogeneous, as all pigs were of the crossbreed Noroc that was produced to give higher intramuscular fat content than the regular Norwegian Landrace/Yorkshire crossbreed. All the pig samples were from the same farm. Lamb muscles (Musculus psoas major) were obtained 1 day after slaughter from a cold boning line, vacuum-packed, frozen at −40 °C until they could be brought to −80 °C (after 5 days). Each group contained 10 animals. These beef (M. semimembranosus), pork (M. gluteus medius) and lamb (M. psoas major) muscles were randomly chosen from different Norwegian feeding farms from a local meat supplier (Nortura SA, Lillehammer, Norway). l-α-Phosphatidylcholine 95% (egg, chicken) powder was purchased from Avanti Polar Lipids, Inc., (Alabaster, USA).

The production of reducing sugar was determined using

The production of reducing sugar was determined using RG7420 cost the 3.5-dinitrosalicylate reagent where sucrose and cellulose were used as substrates (Miller, 1959). One

unit of enzyme activity (U) was defined as the amount of enzyme that releases 1.0 μmol of product per min under the assay conditions. Data presented for β-glucosidase activity is the mean of assays performed in triplicate. Protein concentration in the enzymatic extracts was determined by the BCA (bicinchoninic acid) method (Smith et al., 1985) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the standard. The molecular weight (MW) of the purified enzyme was estimated by SDS–PAGE using a 12.5% (w/v) polyacrylamide gel (Laemmli, 1970). The molecular mass standards were obtained from Sigma Aldrich (Sigma Markers Wide Range MW 6500–200,000 Da, St. Louis, MO, USA). After electrophoresis, the proteins were visualised by silver staining (Blum, Beier, & Gross, 1987). The protocol used for permeabilisation of D. hansenii UFV-1 cells

was the same as that reported by Junior et al., 2009, with some alterations. Yeast culture samples were centrifuged (25,900g for 5 min at 4 °C) and the pellet was resuspended in a 50% (v/v) ethanol solution at the proportion of 450 μL of this solvent selleck screening library to 0.2 g of cells. After agitation for 5 min at room temperature, the suspension was centrifuged (4000g for 5 min at 4 °C) and the permeabilised cells were dried for 1 h at 37 °C. The protocol used for immobilisation of permeabilised D. hansenii UFV-1 cells was the same as that reported by Junior et al., 2009, with some alterations. The dry permeabilised cells were mixed with a 2% (w/v) sodium alginate solution, in a proportion

of 4 g of cells to 1 g of alginate. This suspension was extruded through a hypodermic needle using a peristaltic pump to obtain a uniform particle size. The droplets eluted from the hypodermic needle were collected in a flask, containing 0.1 M CaCl2 solution to form alginate beads. The beads were maintained in a 0.1 M CaCl2 solution for 12 h at 4 °C. They were subsequently washed three times with 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 5.5 and kept at 4 °C in the same buffer until utilisation. The assay of PAK6 re-use of the alginate beads was performed using pNPβGlc or isoflavones as substrates. Ten millilitres of 2 mM pNPβGlc in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 5.5 and 40 alginate beads were added to 25 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and incubated under agitation (100 rpm) at 50 °C. After 15 min incubation time, an aliquot (100 μL) of solution was taken and the amount of pNP was determined. The isoflavones hydrolysis assay was performed according item 2.12, except that the temperature was 50 °C. After this first cycle, the beads were separated by filtration, washed with 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 5.