The Beck Depression Inventory
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a widely used 21-item self-report measure, which assesses cognitive/affective and somatic symptoms of depression . The scale is based on statements rated by the respondent (range 0-3) according to the intensity experienced during the past two weeks. Due to ethical reasons item 21, which pertains to sexuality, was omitted from the scale in this questionnaire as the respondents had just suffered spousal loss and pilot testing showed that the question was considered offensive by the respondents. Depression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rates were not calculated in this study and the NSC683864 cell line omission of item 21 did not pose a problem to the analyses. Single items The questionnaire contained three Likert-type single item questions on distress and meaning experienced in relation to the death of the relative. These questions were inspired by the literature on risk factors. The Likert-scale ranged from 1-7 (1 = not at all and 7 = a lot). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The cut point for these questions was set to five or more based on a symptom criterion. The questions were: A. How much distress did you experience in relation to your relative dying? B. Even in times of
hardship, like while my relative was dying, I feel a sense Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of meaning in my life? C. Even while my relative was dying, I felt a sense of purpose in my life? Data Analysis Data analysis was performed using STATA 10.1. Answers at T1 were analyzed to explore their association with answers on the ICG-R at T2, six months post loss. Six months post loss was considered a relevant point in time for analysis in a clinical setting within primary care to ensure early detection, and for the sake of simplicity analysis of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical data at 13 and 18 months post loss were left out of this study.
Expectation Maximization algorithm was performed to estimate missing answers on subscales with less than 15% missing answers to allow the calculation of total scores . Scores for the single items B and C were reversed in the process of data analysis so a higher score Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Oxalosuccinic acid denominated more distress. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed for all scales and items on the data set and measured against the scores on ICG at six months post loss. ROC curves plot sensitivity (true positive ratio) by 1-specificity (true negative ratio) for a series of cut off points established by the scale or responses to the single items . The area under the ROC curve (AUC) represents an overall measurement of performance of the test, with 1.0 as a perfect test and 0.5 representing a test with no discriminating capacity. Only scales and items with an AUC > 0.65 were selected for further analysis. The “optimal” cut off points for the scales were set on basis of ROC curve analysis where sensitivity and specificity curves cross on the graph.