We performed a tracheotomy with suturing of the distal stump of <

We performed a tracheotomy with suturing of the distal stump of Selleck ZD6474 the trachea diastase to the skin and suturing of the previous tracheotomy breach. During surgery, a careful dissection of the trachea was conducted in its distal portion and the anonymous artery was protected by a muscle flap. At the end of surgical treatment, mechanical ventilation through a tracheal cannula was hindered

by the reduced length of the residual trachea below the tracheotomy (about 2 cm from the tracheal carina). Any cannula or endotracheal tube could not be secured to the trachea using the cuff. The need to guarantee mechanical ventilation to the patient led to the implementation of a cuff securing system in the two main bronchi. Therefore, we selectively intubated the main bronchi under bronchoscopy guidance using two tubes (Portex Tracheal Tube, ID

5.5 mm; OD 7.4 mm), then inflating the cuffs at both main BAY 73-4506 price stem bronchi inlets (Fig. 2). A Y-shaped bridge was then added for ventilator connection to allow the same ventilation mode for both bronchial systems. Thus, we achieved an adequate minute volume to the patient, allowing us to correct the blood gas levels. During mechanical ventilation, no significant leaks were reported and ventilatory parameters remained stable. Four days later, a bronchoscopic examination showed no evidence of alterations on both main bronchi. The patient died forty days after surgery of sepsis. Currently, tracheotomy is largely performed on patients presenting with acute respiratory failure requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation so as to facilitate weaning, reduce the effort of breathing and curb complications

due to prolonged intubation.1 Although the optimum timing of tracheotomy in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure still remains controversial, the current trend is to anticipate the procedure within the first week of mechanical FER ventilation. The results of a Cochrane meta-analysis performed on five clinical trials showed a significant reduction of days on mechanical ventilation and of hospitalization in ICU wards with early rather than late tracheotomy,2 while no significant difference was reported in mortality or risk of occurrence of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Complications of tracheotomy can be acute, related to or subsequent to the surgical procedure (haemorrhage, pneumothorax, infections, incidental decannulation), or late stage.3 The most frequent late complication is the formation of granulation tissue, with subsequent tracheal stenosis, which can remain asymptomatic for a long time, but which, in some cases, can lead to severe respiratory failure.4 Other types of late complication are rare but life-threatening events, such as tracheoesophageal fistula and tracheo-innominate artery fistula.5 Therefore, the presence of a cuff with a higher critical pressure may cause ischemia and tracheal mucosal necrosis.

These differences could be related to several factors that

These differences could be related to several factors that

can influence the levels of bioactive compounds in fruits and their by-products, such as type of cultivation, climate, fruit variety, and time of the year (Deng, West, & Jensen, 2010). Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products (Table 5) with levels of resveratrol of 25.67 and 112.51 μg/g d.b., respectively, results not reported so far in the literature. Resveratrol was not detected in the other fruits and by-products samples. Resveratrol is a natural stilbene found in many vegetable species, generally in two forms: trans-(E) and cis (Z), with trans-Resveratrol isomer being recognized for its biological activity ( Medina-Bolivar et al., 2007 and Sautter et al., 2005). trans-Resveratrol displays antioxidant and anti-inflammatory AZD6244 properties

( Kalantari & Das, 2010). trans-Resveratrol has been widely studied in grapes and red wines. Even though many factors such as the plant variety, environmental conditions, extraction procedure and solvent used during extraction can influence the quantification of this compound in plant tissues Selleck Luminespib ( Roldan, Palacios, Caro, & Perez, 2003), it reaches about 40.6 μg/g in the aqueous extract from Thompson seedless dried grapes ( Zhao & Hall, 2008). Other edible and non-edible sources of resveratrol include dark chocolate (0.4 μg/g d.b.) ( Counet, Callemien, & Collin, 2006), peanuts (0.03–0.14 μg/g d.b.) ( Sanders, McMichael, & Hendrix, 2000), cranberry 5355.6 ng/g d.b. ( Borowska,

Mazur, Kopciuch, & Buszewski, 2009) and grape skin and pomace (1.17–5.32 mg/100 g d.b. Muscadine variety) ( Casas et al., 2010). When compared to the content of this compound in other commercial polyphenolic extract as determined by Counet et al. (2006), and Casas et al. (2010) one can notice that the content of this compound in guava and surinam cherry by-products (2.57 mg/100 g and 11.25 mg/100 g dry weight), even if present in lower quantities than in commercial red wine (337 mg/100 g dry extract), is still higher than in white grape pomace (0.9 mg/100 g d.b.), skin (3.1 mg/100 g d.b.), stem (1.7 mg/100 g d.b.), and seed (0.2 mg/100 g d.b.). Therefore, guava and surinam cherry by-products can be considered as a rich source of resveratrol. Thiamet G That is particularly interesting considering that this compound has a wide range of nutraceutical and phytopharmaceutical properties. Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) is a natural product having a sweet-herbaceous and cherry flower-like odor (Yang et al., 2009). Coumarins are lactones derived from o-hydroxycinnamic acids by cyclization and ring closure between the o-hydroxy and carboxyl groups. These compounds are present mainly in the families Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceace, and Poaceae. Coumarin occurs in plant tissue in bound form as the trans-o-glucosyloxycinnamic acid ( Kovacik & Repcak, 2008).

Most phenolic compounds found in wine can act as antioxidants (Yi

Most phenolic compounds found in wine can act as antioxidants (Yildirim, Akçay, Güvenç, Altindisli, & Sözmen, 2005). Likewise, residues of wine production are also characterised by high contents of phenolic compounds

due to an incomplete Histone Methyltransferase inhibitor extraction during wine production. According to Shrikhande (2000), grape extracts consist of anthocyanins from the skin and procyanidins from the seeds. By-products obtained after wine production, such as the seeds or pomace, constitute a cheap source for extraction of antioxidant flavonoids, which can be used as food supplements or in the production of phytochemicals (González-Paramás, Esteban-Ruano, Santos-Buelga, Pascual-Teresa, & Rivas-Gonzalo, 2004). Furthermore, anthocyanins are considered as potential substitutes for synthetic colourants owing to their bright, attractive colour and water solubility, which make them attractive for incorporation into a variety of food systems (Bordignon-Luiz, Gauche, Gris, & Falcão, 2007). Synthetic Duvelisib nmr phenolic antioxidants such as BHT (buthylated hydroxytoluene), BHA (buthylated hydroxyanisole) and TBHQ (tert-butylhydroxyquinone) effectively inhibit lipid oxidation. However, concern from consumers regarding such additives has motivated investigations into the benefits of natural antioxidants as substitutes for synthetic ones (Formanek et al.,

2001). Most of the pomace formed from the Brazilian wine production, near 59.4 million kg of pomace considering 18 kg pomace/100 L wine, is treated as a residue with low profit uses such as in animal feed and manure. Therefore, the use of this residue as a valuable winery by-product may represent significant

economic gains and prevent or decrease environmental problems caused by grape pomace accumulation (Campos, Leimann, Pedrosa, & Ferreira, 2008). In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the phenolic compounds content and the in vitro antioxidant activity of red grape pomaces resulting from the Brazilian wine production, with a view to exploiting its Celecoxib potential as a source of natural antioxidants. 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene, linoleic acid, BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, t-resveratrol and rutin were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich Chemie (Steinheim, Germany). Malvidin-3-glucoside was purchased from Polyphenols Laboratories AS (Sandnes, Norway). Folin–Ciocalteau reagent, 2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) and Tween 40 were purchased from Fluka Chemie AG (Buchs, Switzerland). The solvents employed for extraction and HPLC procedures were analytical/HPLC grade and purchased from Merck (São Paulo, Brazil). Red grape pomaces from the following varieties were analysed: Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.), Bordeaux and Isabel (Vitis labrusca L.

However we know with certainty that in the population we studied

However we know with certainty that in the population we studied here, none of these cardiac abnormalities were present at baseline, meaning that the BNP elevation at baseline was truly unexplained by any prevalent cardiac abnormality. This makes our study selleck products unique as most data on BNP being of prognostic significance over and above echocardiographic abnormalities did not do the comprehensive phenotyping that we did and in particular did not screen for

myocardial ischemia, which is known to independently increase BNP 4, 5, 6, 7 and 16. In previous studies, some of the prognostic significance of BNP over and above resting echocardiographic abnormalities could be attributable to silent myocardial ischemia, which was not tested for in those studies. However, we have here demonstrated an additional explanation for why BNP is prognostic beyond echocardiographic abnormalities at baseline, which is that baseline BNP can identify those whose LVM will increase with time. A lot of recent data are suggesting that measuring BNP might one day establish a role

for itself in better managing patients with treated hypertension (2). Paget et al. showed that there was a 3-fold increase in mortality in the top versus the bottom tertile of N-terminal pro-BNP in treated hypertensive patients, even after adjusting for traditional risk factors (2). Recent information from the ASCOT trial shows the same (17). These 2 papers suggest that http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Lapatinib-Ditosylate.html BNP could become a measure within individuals at target BP of whether antihypertensive therapy will actually prevent CV events in them or not. In turn, this begs the question of which (treatable) cardiac abnormalities might be causing the residual risk seen in treated hypertensive patients

with a high BNP. Nadir et al. answered that question by showing that treated hypertensive patients with a high BNP had a combination of LVH, LV diastolic dysfunction, LA enlargement, LV systolic dysfunction, and silent ischemia (in that order of frequency) (1). Importantly, many patients had multiple silent cardiac abnormalities. This study extends that information to now show that in those with no cardiac abnormality at baseline, the elevated residual risk identified by Glutathione peroxidase BNP is likely to be also related to future increases in LVM 18 and 19. There are a few likely explanations for our results. A time effect is likely in that a raised intracardiac pressure genuinely precedes the increase in LVM. BNP is a much more sensitive marker for this increased intracardiac pressure owing to its greater reproducibility of repeat measures and a greater measurement range, whereas imaging parameters change over a much smaller range. This means an early subtle elevation in intracardiac pressure can be picked up by BNP before LV abnormalities are either present or detectable on imaging.

For a given investment in protected area, the incremental gains i

For a given investment in protected area, the incremental gains in species conservation decrease rapidly with increasing amount and cost of surveys. Therefore, contrary to Balmford and Gaston (1999), they argue that with diminishing returns from additional survey information, resources might be better directed toward other conservation actions, depending on their relative costs and benefits. Here, we conduct a case study to determine how much time and money can be spent on gathering information to help foresters prioritize

and select retention trees on clearcuts in a boreal forest landscape in Sweden. To our knowledge, it is the first conservation planning study that addresses the small scale level of individual trees. Retention forestry, which involves

leaving GW-572016 in vitro trees and dead wood at forestry operations to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem functions, is now practiced widely in boreal and temperate forests, and is increasing in application (Gustafsson et al., 2012 and Lindenmayer et al., 2012). In boreal forests, which Enzalutamide cell line comprise about 30% of all forests globally (Hansen et al. 2010), retention forestry is used to create a more heterogeneous forest landscape that resembles a landscape shaped by natural disturbances of varying intensity (Lindenmayer and Franklin 2002). Two main approaches are normally used in parallel: single trees dispersed over the clearcut, and trees retained in small, undisturbed forest patches (Lõhmus et al., 2006 and Nelson and Halpern, 2005). European aspen (Populus tremula L) is a frequently used tree species for retention in Sweden ( Swedish Forest Agency 2012) since it is a key species for beetles, birds, lichens

and bryophytes, including many declining species ( Angelstam and crotamiton Mikusinski, 1994, Kuusinen, 1996 and Siitonen and Martikainen, 1994). In Sweden, retention actions are a legal requirement with the same prescriptions irrespective of ownership. Current guidelines at two of the largest Swedish forest companies (Stora Enso and SCA) for selecting retention trees state that at least 10 trees of high conservation value should be retained per hectare, alone or in patches. Large and old trees shall be prioritized, and in the case of aspens, if there are very few of them, all of them should be retained. In more aspen-rich stands, only a portion of the trees need to be retained. The decision on which solitary trees to retain is normally made by the cutting team, but the guidelines do not include any information on how much time to spend planning per hectare or whether planning must be made prior to cutting or successively while cutting. Thus, basic guidelines for tree selection exist but whether they promote biodiversity better than a random selection has not been rigorously tested.

In addition to this effect on forest health, PPM caterpillars hav

In addition to this effect on forest health, PPM caterpillars have urticating hairs, and may therefore cause health problems for people living in newly colonized urban areas ( Battisti et al., 2011). Monitoring and pest management actions are therefore required on a regular basis, to ensure the detection, evaluation MAPK Inhibitor Library in vivo and mitigation of potential risks to forest and public health ( Jactel et al., 2006 and Cayuela et al., 2011). However, we still lack some of the basic knowledge required for relevant analyses of the risk posed by PPM. In particular, the mechanisms controlling the distribution of PPM attacks within

and between pine stands remain unknown. Pest risk is defined as a combination of three components: (1) hazard occurrence, which depends on the spatiotemporal dynamics of pest populations; (2) plant vulnerability to hazard, resulting in a certain amount of damage; and (3) the economic impact of damage, depending on the potential value of the plants damaged (Jactel et al., 2012). For the determination of each of these components, we need to know which trees are likely to be attacked by PPM. Conventional population monitoring is based on counts of winter nests built by late-instar larvae of PPM and visible in tree crowns (Geri and Miller, 1985 and Jactel et al., 2006). This sampling method could be improved by better knowledge of the spatial distribution of attacked trees, both between Selleck JQ1 and within

pine stands. It has recently been shown that the frequency of infestation with PPM is higher for trees at the stand edge than for trees at the heart of the stand (Dulaurent et al., 2012), but it remains unclear whether the infested trees are randomly distributed or aggregated within stands (Arnaldo and Torres, 2005). Feeny (1970) coined the term “plant apparency” to describe the likelihood of a plant being identified by its herbivore enemies. This original definition as been extended to include two key features underlying plant apparency (Castagneyrol et al., 2013): the individual size, color or odor of the plant, and Dipeptidyl peptidase its relative abundance within the plant community. At the stand scale, the probability of an individual tree being attacked

by PPM would be expected to decrease with increasing tree numbers, i.e. in denser stands, due to a dilution process, as reported by Geri and Miller (1985). At the individual tree scale, the probability of attack is generally dependent on the insect’s perception of the physical or chemical cues provided by the host tree. Insect herbivores may locate host trees through visual cues ( Prokopy and Owens, 1983), such as tree color ( Goyer et al., 2004 and Campbell and Borden, 2009) or shape. For example, Dulaurent et al. (2012) showed that the planting broadleaved hedgerows next to pine stands reduced the number of attacks on the pines growing behind the hedgerow. The magnitude of this effect was dependent on the relative heights of the pines and the broadleaved hedge trees.

As seen in the video, clients are informed in the orientation ses

As seen in the video, clients are informed in the orientation session that after-hours telephone coaching is offered for three important reasons: (a) to decrease suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviors, (b) to assist in generalizing the skills taught in treatment to everyday life, and (c) to provide an opportunity to make a repair in the therapy relationship if warranted (Linehan, 1993). When working with suicidal clients or nonsuicidal self-injurious clients, an important goal is to reduce the risk of a completed suicide while not simultaneously reinforcing future suicide behaviors Enzalutamide clinical trial (Linehan, 1993). This can be a delicate

walk as the very intervention that is at times required to prevent suicide (e.g., hospitalization, additional therapy contact, etc.) can also serve to perpetuate suicidal behaviors. Thus, it becomes critical to properly orient DBT clients to the first function of telephone coaching: decreasing suicidal behaviors. Many individuals with BPD have previously been reinforced for nonsuicidal self-injurious/suicidal behaviors or have found that the only way in which their needs are met is through escalation and crisis-oriented behaviors. Thus, some individuals with BPD have learned to use nonsuicidal self-injurious/suicidal behaviors as a method to communicate distress,

while other clients become so dysregulated it becomes a habitual problem-solving response. For these reasons, teaching clients new and appropriate ways to ask for help is critical. When orienting clients to the first function of telephone GSK1210151A datasheet coaching in DBT the therapist must ADP ribosylation factor emphatically state to the client that they call before engaging in a nonsuicidal self-injurious act ( Linehan,

1993). This changes the timing of the reinforcement so that the reinforcer (e.g., therapist time and attention) is no longer provided after nonsuicidal self-injury or suicidal behaviors but rather is provided prior to nonsuicidal self-injury/suicidal behaviors, thereby rewarding and teaching the client to “catch” nonsuicidal self-injurious and/or suicidal urges. Sometimes clinicians are working with individuals with BPD who may not engage in nonsuicidal self-injury, but rather use suicidal thoughts, urges, and/or threats as communication or problem-solving attempts. If a client does not self-injure but instead becomes suicidal, the therapist then instructs the client that they must call during the ascending arm of the suicidal crisis rather than waiting until the crisis reaches its peak or during the descending arm of the crisis. This can be difficult territory to navigate and misunderstandings between client and clinician are common here. Clients, understandably, feel that they have been instructed to call their therapist when they are distressed and at risk for suicide.

The roots

The roots check details were then rinsed twice with SDW. The sterilized ginseng roots were dipped in bacterial suspensions (106 CFU/mL and 108 CFU/mL) for

40 min and dried for 1 h on a clean bench [31]. The roots were transplanted into artificially infested soil in plastic pots with concentrations of 5% oatmeal-culture fungal inoculum and incubated at 25°C. Root rot symptoms were examined visually 10 d following inoculation. Two concentrations of Bacillus broth cultures (106 CFU/mL and 108 CFU/mL) were used as treatment. Ginseng root discs were treated with 20 μL of the bacterial suspensions and were placed on moistened filter paper inside petri dishes and incubated at 25°C. There were three replicates of root discs for each treatment, and the experiment was performed twice. To measure cell population changes, the whole root discs treated and inoculated were ground in a blender and suspended in 10 mL SDW. KRX-0401 supplier The solution was then diluted with SDW, spread

on BHI agar, and incubated at 28°C. After incubation of 20 h, the number of colonies formed on the agar plates was counted with the naked eye for the total bacterial population on the root discs. These were examined daily up to 7 d after incubation [32]. To prepare the samples for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the bacterial isolates grown in BHI broth for 2 d were mixed with the Fusarium isolate and incubated on PDA at 25°C. One d after incubation, mycelial discs were fixed with modified Karnovsky’s fixative [2% paraformaldehyde and 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.05M sodium cacodylate buffer (pH 7.2)] for 12 h at 4°C [33]. The fixed specimens were washed with 0.05M sodium cacodylate buffer three times for 10 min each. These were postfixed in 1% OsO4 at 4°C for 2 h, and briefly washed with distilled water. The specimens were then dehydrated in an ethanol series of 30%, 50%, 70%,

80%, and Inositol monophosphatase 1 90% for 10 min each, and in 100% ethanol three times for 10 min each [33]. Using hexamethyldisilazane (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Hatfield, PA, USA), specimens were dried and coated with gold using a sputter coater (MSC-101, JEOL). The specimens were observed under a field emission SEM (Auriga, Zeiss, Berlin, Germany) at an acceleration voltage of 5.0 kV. The fungal isolate C4-1 obtained from the rotten cactus stem had all the same mycological characteristics of Fusarium species and formed multicellular falcate macroconidia. Morphological characteristics of the fungal isolate were as follows: extensive and cotton-like mycelia with a colony color of pale orange or yellowish brown on PDA; macroconidia produced from polyphialides on CLA, slightly curved, frequently 3–5 septate, with a curved and tapering apical cell and a foot-shaped basal cell, measuring 37.9 ± 4.3 μm × 4.2 ± 0.5 μm; mesoconidia, which were fusoid, 1–5 septate, measuring 20.2 ± 4.3 μm × 3.7 ± 0.7 μm; intercalary chlamydospores; and absent microconidia ( Table 1, Fig. 1), indicating that they are matched well with the F.

As a result, employment in the City of Detroit declined whereas i

As a result, employment in the City of Detroit declined whereas it increased in the surrounding

suburbs. This decentralization was facilitated by the construction of federally-subsidized interstate freeways, including Interstate 94 along the shoreline of LSC, which improved access and reduced travel time (Edsall et al., 1988 and Surgue, U0126 cell line 2005). Construction of housing units continued in each county, with the real median home value higher in Macomb and Oakland Counties compared to the rest of the counties in the region (Fig. 4). However, the population in Wayne County during the period from 1960 to 1970 continued to increase (Fig. 3). Following one theory of urban dynamics, a possible explanation for this population increase is that as housing aged,

the rental costs declined http://www.selleckchem.com/products/dinaciclib-sch727965.html and people had a preference to reside in more crowded locations (Forrester, 1969). After 1970 (third period), the population, number of households and employment in Wayne County continually decreased, whereas these parameters increased in the other five counties (Lapeer, Sanilac, Oakland, Macomb, and St. Clair) although at a slower pace compared to the other two periods. Since 2000 there are some signs of stabilization in human dynamics (e.g. population, income, households) in the five counties probably due to the recent financial crisis (Fig. 3). Although population growth rates for each county slowed since the ID-8 1970s, an increasing trend in land development continued as a result of increased residential lot sizes (SEMCOG, 2003) (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). From 1970 to 1980, the average real personal income per capita for the combined five counties in the LSC watershed was slightly lower compared to Wayne County but then diverged starting in 1981 when Wayne County levels became lower than the other counties and stayed lower until now (Fig. 3). This means that the human population with higher income per capita likely shifted from Wayne County (outside of LSC watershed) to the counties within the watershed, and these changes in the land use characteristics were likely to influence the lake. Between 1990 and 2000, the amount

of land used for homes increased by 19% while the number of homes grew by only 9% (Rogers, 2003). If these trends continue, urban pressures on LSC from its western catchment can only be expected to intensify. Therefore, human dynamics surrounding the lake provide a critical linkage in the CHANS framework because human activities in the watershed will inevitably influence point and nonpoint source pollutants, recreational activities and the spread of invasive species to LSC (Mavrommati et al., in press). Responding to the rapid industrialization and population growth, water and wastewater infrastructure was gradually built primarily to protect human health (e.g., drinking water) and secondarily to improve the ecological condition of the receiving waters (Fig. 5).

039 Bq/g) measured at the upstream Munroe Falls dam pool (Peck et

039 Bq/g) measured at the upstream Munroe Falls dam pool (Peck et al., 2007). The bedrock beneath the Gorge Dam pool sediment is sandstone and shale of the Cuyahoga Group, whereas the Munroe Falls site is underlain by the quartz-rich Sharon Formation. Shale often contains more 238U (the grand grandparent to 210Pb) than sandstone, and the difference in bedrock type may account for the slight difference in background values between these nearby sites. The core top (0 cmblf) was set to the time of core PS-341 mouse collection (year 2011.4). 9 cm of gravel at the base of core C4 is interpreted as a fluvial deposit predating the

construction of the dam. Overlying the gravel at 545 cmblf is the base of the impoundment mud deposit. The sample at 488.1 cmblf has an unrealistic 210Pb age (1890) that predates dam construction (Fig. 7). Therefore the age model is estimated by linear interpolation between the 210Pb CHIR-99021 supplier sample at 443.6 cmblf (1928) and the onset of inferred impoundment sedimentation at 545 cmblf (1912)(Fig. 7). Deep in the core the 210Pb values approach background; thus, the ages have larger uncertainty. As described in Section 3.3, bathymetric maps and sediment cores were used to obtain a sediment volume estimate. Core C4 was collected close to cross section 3 (Fig. 2) and contains

4.98 m of sediment between the 2010 and 1918 210Pb dated horizons. This amount of sediment agrees closely with the 4.86 m difference between the 1918 and 2010 bathymetric surfaces at cross section 3. The total sediment volume is estimated at 765,000 m3 and, based upon an average sediment dry bulk density (0.58 g cm−3), has an approximate mass of 444,000 tonnes. To examine changes in sediment accumulation rate we followed the method of Evans and Heller (2003). The mass accumulation PLEKHB2 rate (kg m−2 yr−1) for core

C4 was calculated by multiplying the sedimentation rate, determined from 210Pb dating, by the dry bulk density (measured at a 2 cm interval corresponding to an average time step of 0.4 yr). The core C4 mass accumulation rate was then multiplied by the dam pool surface area (160,000 m2) to estimate the total sediment mass deposited at each dated horizon (Fig. 8). Summing all 99 years of mass accumulation yielded a total of 508,000 tonnes of impoundment sediment. This value is only 14% greater than the mass obtained by simply multiplying the total volume by an average sediment density as reported above. Our method of multiplying the core C4 mass accumulation rate by the dam pool area assumes that the sediment thickness and sediment type at core site C4 is uniform throughout the impoundment. We believe that these assumptions are not severe limitations. Downstream of Front Street Bridge the C4 thickness is representative of much of the impoundment. However, between profiles 9 and 14 the sediment can be up to 8–10 m thick (Fig. 5).