We observed 9268 individuals; median group size was 6 5 (se = 1 7

We observed 9268 individuals; median group size was 6.5 (se = 1.7; range = 1–121), and groups of 1–5 animals were most common. Seasonality exerted strong effects with the smallest groups in June

and largest in December. The largest mixed and nursery groups formed during pre-rutting and summer seasons, respectively, but no seasonal differences were detected for bachelor groups. The best fitting model, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, predation rate and season as covariates, explained ∼76% of the variation in monthly ‘typical’ group size. Our results are concordant with studies of other arid-adapted ungulates and suggest vegetation productivity, predation rate and biological cycles are responsible

for saiga grouping patterns in Mongolia. “
“Evolutionary Biology Center, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Poznan, Poland Both genome-wide heterozygosity selleck chemicals and heterozygosity at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are often associated with higher fitness. Recent theoretical work indicates that sexual ornaments may reveal information about individual heterozygosity, and that preference for such ornaments may benefit females via the increased heterozygosity of their progeny. Here, we used path analysis to investigate the direct and indirect Trichostatin A chemical structure (via body size used as an index of condition) effects of heterozygosity at six microsatellite loci and the MHC class II DAB gene on the size of a sexual ornament, the crest, in the crested newt Triturus cristatus. We found that microsatellite heterozygosity, but not MHC heterozygosity, significantly predicted male body size, and that male body size significantly predicted crest height. However, there was no direct effect of MHC or microsatellite heterozygosity on crest height. Furthermore, microsatellite heterozygosity significantly increased with age, indicating that it had a positive effect on survival. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 that heterozygosity determines condition, and that variation in condition is expressed as variation in sexual ornamentation. “
“We measured

the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in head shape, head scalation and femoral pores in two lizard species (Podarcis bocagei and Podarcis hispanica) from 13 islands and 15 mainland localities in the Ria de Arosa archipelago of north-western Spain. Given the recent geological history of the region, the degree of isolation to which lizard populations have been subjected can be ordered along a spatio-temporal gradient, yielding the following hypotheses to be tested: FA will be higher (1) in island populations than in mainland populations; (2) on remote islands than on islands close to the mainland; (3) on small islands than on large islands. Molecular genetic data suggest that P. hispanica is autochthonous in the Ria de Arosa, whereas P. bocagei is a more recent arrival.

Factor IX Grifols® is an effective and safe Factor IX concentrate

Factor IX Grifols® is an effective and safe Factor IX concentrate and can be considered as a first line option for replacement therapy in haemophilia B patients. “
“This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Lipid-enveloped viruses Nonlipid-enveloped viruses Prions Outlook References “
“Summary.  Eighteen cryoprecipitate

minipools, each made of 30 units of low volume, concentrated cryoprecipitate, have been treated by solvent-detergent and filtration (S/D-F) in a single-use CE-marked bag system. The S/D-F cryoprecipitate contained a mean of 10.5 IU mL−1 factor VIII (FVIII), 17 mg mL−1 clottable fibrinogen, and >10 IU mL−1 von Willebrand factor ristocetin selleck chemicals co-factor, and anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins were undetectable. The products have been infused in 11 severe (FVIII <1%) haemophilia A patients (mean age: 17.4 years; mean weight: 57.6 kg) at a dose close to 40 IU kg−1. Patients were hospitalized for at least 36 h to determine FVIII recovery, half-life and Mitomycin C research buy clearance. They were also closely monitored for possible adverse events. None of the infused patients demonstrated reactions or adverse events even though they did not receive anti-allergic drugs or corticosteroids prior to infusion. The mean recovery of FVIII 10 min postinfusion

was 69.7%. Mean FVIII half-life was 14.2 h and clearance was 2.6 mL h−1 kg−1. All patients had a bleeding-free interval of 8–10 days postS/D-F cryoprecipitate infusion. The data show that S/D-F cryoprecipitate Sclareol FVIII presents a normal pharmacokinetics profile, and support that it could be safely used for the control of acute and chronic bleeding episodes

in haemophilia A patients. “
“The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as an autologous cell source has shed new light on cell replacement therapy with respect to the treatment of numerous hereditary disorders. We focused on the use of iPSCs for cell-based therapy of haemophilia. We generated iPSCs from mesenchymal stem cells that had been isolated from C57BL/6 mice. The mouse iPSCs were generated through the induction of four transcription factor genes Oct3/4, Klf-4, Sox-2 and c-Myc. The derived iPSCs released functional coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) following transduction with a simian immunodeficiency virus vector. The subcutaneous transplantation of iPSCs expressing FVIII into nude mice resulted in teratoma formation, and significantly increased plasma levels of FVIII. The plasma concentration of FVIII was at levels appropriate for human therapy at 2–4 weeks post transplantation. Our data suggest that iPSCs could be an attractive and prospective autologous cell source for the production of coagulation factor, and that engineered iPSCs expressing coagulation factor might provide a cell-based therapeutic strategy appropriate for haemophilia. “
“Summary.  Hemophilia A is an X-linked, inherited, bleeding disorder caused by the partial or total inactivity of the coagulation factor VIII (FVIII).

There are two prophylaxis protocols currently in use for which th

There are two prophylaxis protocols currently in use for which there are long-term data: The Malmö protocol: 25–40 IU kg−1 per dose administered three times a week for those with hemophilia A, and twice a week for those with hemophilia B. The Utrecht protocol: 15–30 IU kg−1 per dose administered three times a week for those with hemophilia A, and twice a week for those with hemophilia B. However, many different

protocols are followed for prophylaxis, Palbociclib even within the same country, and the optimal regimen remains to be defined. The protocol should be individualized as much as possible based on age, venous access, bleeding phenotype, activity, and availability of clotting factor concentrates. One option for the treatment of very young children is to start prophylaxis once a week and escalate depending on bleeding and venous access. Prophylaxis is best given in the morning to cover periods

of activity. Prophylactic administration of clotting factor concentrates is advisable prior to engaging in activities with higher risk of injury. (Level 4) [ [34, 35, 18] ] Where appropriate and possible, persons with hemophilia should be managed in a home therapy setting. Home therapy allows immediate access to clotting factor and hence optimal early treatment, resulting in decreased pain, dysfunction, and long-term disability and significantly decreased hospital admissions for complications. (Level 3) [ [36, 37] ] Further improvements in quality of life include greater freedom to travel and participate in physical activities, BAY 57-1293 datasheet less absenteeism, and greater employment stability. [38] Home therapy is ideally achieved with clotting factor concentrates or other lyophilized products that are safe, can be stored in a domestic fridge, and are reconstituted easily. Home treatment must be supervised closely by the comprehensive care team and should only be initiated after adequate education and training. (Level Histamine H2 receptor 3) [ [36, 37] ] Teaching should focus on general knowledge of hemophilia; recognition of bleeds and common complications; first aid measures;

dosage calculation; preparation, storage, and administration of clotting factor concentrates; aseptic techniques; performing venipuncture (or access of central venous catheter); record keeping; proper storage and disposal of needles/sharps; and handling of blood spills. A certification program is helpful. Patients or parents should keep bleed records (paper or electronic) that include date and site of bleeding, dosage and lot number of product used, and adverse effects Infusion technique and bleed records should be reviewed and monitored at follow-up visits. Home care can be started with young children with adequate venous access and motivated family members who have undergone adequate training. Older children and teenagers can learn self-infusion with family support.

“We report a 51-year-old female patient with adult-onset t

“We report a 51-year-old female patient with adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) who had a history of pancreatoduodenectomy for duodenal somatostatinoma with metastases to regional lymph nodes at age 49 Gemcitabine price years, paying special attention

to indications for liver transplantation. At age 50 years, she developed hepatic encephalopathy with elevation of plasma ammonia and citrulline levels. A diagnosis of CTLN2 was made by DNA analysis of the SLC25A13 gene and treatment with conservative therapies was begun, including a low-carbohydrate diet and supplementation with arginine and sodium pyruvate. However, despite these treatments, frequent attacks of encephalopathy occurred with markedly elevated plasma ammonia levels.

While we were apprehensive regarding the risk of recurrence of somatostatinoma due to immunosuppressive therapy after liver transplantation, the patient was in a critical condition with CTLN2 and it was decided to perform living-donor liver transplantation using a graft obtained from her son. Her MG-132 manufacturer postoperative clinical course was uneventful and she has had an active life without recurrence of somatostatinoma for 2 years. This is the first case of CTLN2 with somatostatinoma. Acetophenone As the condition of CTLN2 patients with rapidly progressive courses is often intractable by conservative therapies alone, liver transplantation should be considered even after surgery for malignant tumors in cases with neither metastasis nor recurrence. “
“See Articles on Pages 1201 and 1214. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune response and are essential in the host’s first-line defense against viral infections. A major hallmark of NK cells

is their ability to kill infected cells without requiring previous immunization and to produce large amounts of antiviral effector cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). NK cells also play an important role in the priming and regulation of adaptive immune responses. For example, NK cells can regulate T-cell responses by lysing virus-infected antigen-presenting cells or by cytolytically eliminating activated CD4 T cells that affect CD8 T-cell function and exhaustion, as has been recently demonstrated in the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mouse model.1, 2 Accordingly, in that model, NK-cell depletion causes enhanced T-cell immunity that may lead to rapid virus control and prevention of chronic infection.

Its deacetylation by SIRT-1 allows it to stimulate gene expressio

Its deacetylation by SIRT-1 allows it to stimulate gene expression through its interactions

with PPAR-α. Furthermore, SREBP-1c is a target for SIRT-1 and its acetylation state may affect its transcriptional activity. b)  Extrahepatic factors Lipid metabolism in the liver is integrated with a variety of signals, including circulating hormones, cytokines, nutrition, and other factors that impinge on the intrahepatic processes leading to steatosis. While some of these factors are intrahepatic (e.g. cytokines released from Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, or stellate cells), others are dispatched by remote tissues. Of particular Selleckchem Poziotinib relevance are hormones (e.g. insulin), adiponectin and leptin (secreted

from adipose tissue), and stress hormones and satiety factors that act through the hypothalamus PI3K Inhibitor Library ic50 or other brain structures to regulate food intake. Chronic ethanol consumption has a notable impact on the synthesis and secretion of several of these factors, in addition to affecting their capacity to impact lipid metabolic pathways in the liver. Adiponectin, one of the adipokines secreted by adipose tissue to regulate lipid homeostasis, acts on multiple tissues including the liver to sensitize the response to insulin and enhance fatty acid oxidation. In animal experiments, ethanol feeding tends to suppress adiponectin Anacetrapib secretion from adipose tissue. However, the effects of ethanol on adiponectin levels may depend on dietary factors such as the content of saturated and unsaturated fat.[14] Whether circulating adiponectin levels are similarly correlated with liver damage in human alcoholics remains unclear.[15] Insulin plays a dominant role in integrating fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver with

the energetic needs of other tissues. Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis that occurs in the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes is commonly associated with insulin resistance, that is, a decreased capacity to respond to changes in circulating insulin, in multiple tissues including liver and muscle. There is strong evidence that stress responses mediated by free fatty acid accumulation or ER stress result in activation of stress response protein kinases, including protein kinase C and Jun-N-terminal kinase, which affect the intracellular signaling pathways through which insulin exerts its effects. As described earlier, hepatic steatosis represents a severe condition of increased oxidative stress, ER, and metabolic stress. However, the mechanisms by which such stress conditions can lead to a more severe inflammatory condition remain only partly understood.

2 mm) along with a loss of normal five-layer pattern (Fig  1) Th

2 mm) along with a loss of normal five-layer pattern (Fig. 1). The proximal uninvolved esophagus revealed a normal 5-layered wall pattern (Fig. 2). Triamcinolone

acetonide (40 mg/mL diluted 1:1 with saline solution; 0.5 mL at each site) was injected at the proximal margin as well as in the strictured segment. Thereafter, endoscopic dilatation was performed and the patient has since been asymptomatic. Corrosive selleckchem injury of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an important health problem, especially in developing countries. The injury and inflammation of the GIT caused by corrosives can cause hemorrhaging and perforation in an acute setting and strictures in the delayed phase. Corrosive induced GIT strictures are difficult to manage as they require more endoscopic dilatation sessions and are more likely to recur. The factors responsible for this clinical course are unclear but the intense fibrosis and consequent esophageal wall thickening may be responsible for it. EUS could provide more detailed information compared with conventional endoscopy as it images the full thickness of the GIT wall. It has been shown in an acute setting that the involvement of muscularis propria on EUS predicts stricture formation

with an accuracy of 100%. Theoretically, EUS may also be helpful in the management of patients with corrosive strictures but its role needs to be studied. One may predict the response to dilatation by measuring the wall selleck chemical thickness on EUS (Fig. 1)

as well as more precisely injecting intralesional steroids in the thickest GIT wall under EUS guidance. However, this hypothesis needs to be tested in prospective studies. Contributed by “
“A surgeon needs to address Cell Cycle inhibitor four issues on surgical evaluation for a liver transplant candidate. These are: (1) necessity; (2) suitability; (3) strategy; and (4) informed consent. A surgeon’s “eye-ball” test is sometimes more important than consulting many specialists. A creative strategy is key, especially if you practice in extreme organ shortage areas. “
“Sabio G, Cavanagh-Kyros J, Ko HJ, Jung DY, Gray S, Jun JY, et al. Prevention of steatosis by hepatic JNK1. Cell Metab 2009;10:491-498. (Reprinted with permission.) Nonalcoholic steatosis (fatty liver) is a major cause of liver dysfunction that is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The cJun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and drugs that target JNK1 may be useful for treatment of this disease. Indeed, mice with defects in JNK1 expression in adipose tissue are protected against hepatic steatosis. Here we report that mice with specific ablation of Jnk1 in hepatocytes exhibit glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. JNK1 therefore serves opposing actions in liver and adipose tissue to both promote and prevent hepatic steatosis.

Its safety, tolerability and efficacy in subjects ≥12 years have

Its safety, tolerability and efficacy in subjects ≥12 years have been demonstrated. This study was undertaken to assess Optivate® in children with haemophilia A. Twenty-five children, including one PUP GS-1101 manufacturer (previously untreated patient), aged 1–6 years (mean 4.67 years) were treated with Optivate® for 26 weeks. Inhibitors were assessed every 3 months and

viral status at the study start and end. Prophylaxis was used by five boys and on demand by twenty. The mean number of bleeds in the study was lower compared to the same period pre-study (12.0/child vs. 16.2/child), with fewer bleeds (P < 0.05) in the prophylactic subgroup (8.0/child) compared with the on-demand sub-group (13.4/child). Fourteen major bleeds were reported, all by the on-demand sub-group. Children on prophylaxis were administered a mean of 59.4 infusions; on-demand group 35.1 Selleckchem CHIR99021 infusions. A total of 998 infusions were used with a mean dose of 29.1 IU kg−1, and a mean of 38.6 exposure days (ED). Children <4 years used higher doses, and reported fewer bleeds than older children. Children’s Parents/Guardians rated Optivate® as helpful or very helpful

in controlling 97.5% of bleeds by the prophylactic group, and in 98.5% of the bleeds in the on-demand group. Only 5 of 101 ADRs were treatment-related events (5%), all were mild and non-serious. There were no clinically significant changes in vital signs, viral transmissions or inhibitors. Rebamipide In young children Optivate® was well tolerated, safe and efficacious. “
“Summary.  The efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) therapy in haemophilia A is challenged by the lack of a reliable monitoring tool for treatment response. This

is further complicated by the significant inter-patient variability associated with this response. Thromboelastography (TEG), a real time global haemostatic test has shown superiority over conventional tests of haemostasis and has proven efficiency in the monitoring of bypass agents such as rFVIIa and FEIBA™. However, this evaluation has been limited to a few case studies or very small patient series. In this study, six severe haemophilia A dogs were treated with a clinically relevant single dose of rFVIIa, and therapy was monitored by thromboelastography predrug and at 15, 30 and 60 min postdrug administration using citrated whole blood samples activated with tissue factor and compared with non-tissue factor-activated samples. Despite the homogeneity of the tested dogs, a clear inter-individual variation was observed in the pre-and post-rFVIIa Thromboelastography analyzes. The improvement of global haemostatic parameters was seen as early as 15 min following drug administration, with a peak for factor VIIa activity in plasma at the same time. There is a significant correlation between plasma FVIIa and TEG parameters 15 min postinjection, and the baseline TEG profile influences the individual postdrug administration outcome.

However the mechanistic role of CD44 in modulating the susceptibi

However the mechanistic role of CD44 in modulating the susceptibility to APAP hepatotoxicity is largely unknown. Aim: Determine the role of CD44 in the development of APAP hepatotoxicity by comparing CD44-deficient(KO) mice to wild-type(WT) Selleck Lapatinib mice. Methods: Normal fed WT and KO mice with C57BL/6J background were i.p. injected 400mg/kg of APAP dissolved in PBS to induce liver injury. Hepatic

cytokine/chemokine and plasma HA levels were measured by qPCR and ELISA respectively. Results: Compared with WT mice, KO mice exhibited markedly enhanced susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury at 8h and 24h after APAP, evidenced by significantly increased RGFP966 cost levels of serum ALT(805±425 U/L in WT vs. 2632±746 U/L in KO at 24h, p<0.05) and histological changes of centrilobular necrosis in the liver. The exacerbated liver injury in KO mice was associated with increased hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (TNFα, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1 β, IFNγ, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, CCL2) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1,

VCAM-1) at both 8hr and 24h, and markedly increased hepatic infiltration of iNKT cells(CD3+CD1d-tetramer+), inflammatory monocytes(CD11b+F4/80+) and neutrophils(CD11b+Ly6Ghi) at 24h. APAP treatment increased hepatic protein levels of CD44 at 24h, 48h and 72h in WT mice. The percentages Fossariinae of apoptotic hepatic iNKT cells in APAP-treated KO mice was much lower than that in APAP-treated WT mice. KO mice displayed much higher plasma HA levels at 8, 24 and 48h after APAP when compared with APAP-treated WT mice (p<0.05). Hepatic CYP2E1 proteins and GSH depletions at 2 and 8h after APAP exhibited no differences between WT and KO mice. Conclusion: The findings suggest that CD44 may play a regulatory role in the development of APAP hepatotoxicity by modulating inflammatory cell activation and infiltration in the liver. Impaired clearance of

HA may also contribute to sustained inflammation and delayed resolution of APAP hepatotoxicity in KO mice. Disclosures: Neil Kaplowitz – Consulting: GlaxoSmithKline, JNJ, Merck, Novartis, Hepregen, Takeda, Otsuka, Pfizer, Geron, Daiichi-Sanyo; Independent Contractor: Acetaminophen Litigation The following people have nothing to disclose: Jo Suda, Luoluo Yang, Zhang-Xu Liu Background: Despite extensive liver injury after severe APAP-in-duced hepatotoxicity and acute liver failure (ALF), DNA synthesis is often noted in residual hepatocytes, but this is inadequate for liver regeneration. However, recent studies established that native hepatocytes may regenerate the liver when cell injury-related processes and events, e.g., oxidative DNA damage, was reversed by cell therapy.

1) Here, co-occurrence of the two salamander species (S  s  terr

1). Here, co-occurrence of the two salamander species (S. s. terrestris and S. a. atra) has been documented across a wide altitudinal range (500 to 1000 m a.s.l.) in an area characterized by mixed forest, or grassland with small streams (Klewen, 1986; Werner et al., in press). We selected 23 and 19 watersheds of low-order streams, respectively, potentially suitable and accessible to both species (Fig. 1). Watersheds had an average surface area of 27 852 m2 (ranging 17 309–43 668 m2) and covered areas of deciduous to mixed forests at elevations of 450–900 m a.s.l. Though S. atra is water independent

with regard to its reproductive mode, Klewen (1986) observed highest species’ densities in the vicinities of streams. Thus,

we chose haphazardly an accessible 100 m section along a small fishless stream within each watershed for salamander surveys (hereafter ‘sampling site’). STAT inhibitor Because of the steep terrain of the watersheds, our surveys covered an area of up to 100 m width on both sides of the stream. We obtained detection/non-detection data for both salamander species at each sampling site by visiting the sites three to four times in a randomly chosen order between 9 May 2010 and 6 July 2010. A single observer conducted visual encounter surveys (Vonesh et al., 2010) of about an hour during daytime to search for salamander larvae in the stream and to search for juvenile and adult salamanders in the terrestrial habitat. Suitable shelter objects on the forest floor were turned Methocarbamol and inspected for salamanders. To analyze which factors affect selleck products the occupancy probabilities of the two salamander species, we measured habitat and climatic predictor variables (Table 1). Variables characterizing the stream and the surrounding terrestrial habitat

of each sampling site were estimated directly in the field. We measured two variables that describe stream features. For the variable ‘pools’, we estimated the area with a low stream current, which provide suitable microhabitats for the aquatic larvae of S. salamandra (Baumgartner, Waringer & Waringer, 1999) as proportion to the total area within the stream section. For three haphazardly chosen 1 m2 sample plots within each stream, we counted and classified the mean amount of hiding possibilities for salamander larvae (i.e. stones or dead wood with a surface of at least 100 cm2; Thiesmeier & Schuhmacher, 1990) by using a rank scale (1 = more than a mean of 25 hiding possibilities; 2 = mean of 15–24.9 hiding possibilities, 3 = mean of 5–14.9 hiding possibilities; 4 = less than a mean 4.9 hiding possibilities). To characterize the terrestrial habitat at each sampling site, we quantified the mean stream bank slope by measuring the distance (m) per metre height at three randomly chosen points at 1.5 m distance to the bank on both sides of a stream (indicating stream accessibility for deposition of salamander larvae; Manenti et al., 2011).

However, factors predicting its development are still controversi

However, factors predicting its development are still controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antituberculosis therapy-induced hepatotoxicity and the risk factors related to its development. Methods: The author reviewed retrospectively the medical records of the 2,204 patients who had taken ATT for 2 weeks or longer from January 1, 2005 through June 30, 2010 in Gyeong-Sang National university, South Korea. The patients’ demographic, social, clinical and laboratory

data were collected and analyzed for the relationships between hepatotoxicity and these various parameters. Hepatotoxicity was determined by investigation of liver tests at the time of pretreatment selleck inhibitor and 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90 days of

ATT. Results: Two-hundred two (9.2%) out of 2,204 patients taken ATT developed hepatotoxicity. Mean age of the patients with ATT-induced hepatotoxicity was 52.5 ± 18.7 years and 130 (64.6%) patients were male. The frequency of ATT-induced hepatotoxicity was higher in the patients with abnormal baseline liver function than the ones with normal liver function (88/541, 16.3% vs. 114/1,663, 6.9%, p = 0.000), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected than non-infected (28/150, 18.7% vs. 174/2,054, 8.5%, p = 0.000) BMN 673 clinical trial patients, and the patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than the ones without it (7/17, 41.2% vs. 195/2,187, 8.9%, p = 0.000).

There was no significant relationship between the frequency Urease of ATT-induced hepatotoxicity and gender, old age over 60 years or 35 years, body mass index, alcohol drink, indication of ATT, underlying diseases except HCC, and past history of ATT. Baseline LFT abnormality, underlying HCC and HBV or HCV infections were risk factors for ATT-induced hepatotoxicity on univariate and multivariate analysis. The majority of patients with ATT-induced hepatotoxicity (170/202, 84.2%) were identified within first 30 days of ATT, and hepatotoxicity occurred within first 7 days in 64 patients (31.7%). Conclusion: The frequency of ATT-induced hepatotoxicity was 9.2%, and its risk factors were abnormal baseline liver function, and underlying HBV or HCV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Closed monitoring should be required for the patients who have these risk factors during first 30 days of ATT, especially first 7 days. Key Word(s): 1. antituberculosis; 2. hepatotoxicity; 3. frequency; 4.