14 Among cationic polymers, polyethylenimine (PEI) has been most widely used as a gene delivery system owing to its relatively high transfection efficiencies,15 and prolonged gene expression.16 Despite neverless these advantages, PEI has limited liver-targeting ability and a less-than-ideal cytotoxicity profile.17 Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biocompatible polymer, has been shown to enhance liver distribution and protect against the cytotoxicity of carriers. Several studies have reported high expression levels of the HA receptor for endocytosis in liver tissue, indicating that HA may facilitate receptor-mediated endocytosis in the liver.18,19,20 Moreover, most endogenous HA is generally transported and metabolized in liver cells, suggesting that the HA component might confer liver-targeting potential on carrier systems.
21,22 In this study, we hypothesized that enhanced expression of MMP13 in liver tissue might ameliorate liver fibrosis. To test this hypothesis, we developed a system for delivering an MMP13 expression plasmid using PEI shielded with HA. Here, we report that HA shielding significantly increased the viability of transfected cells in vitro, and show that systemic administration of an MMP13-encoding gene using PEI shielded with HA greatly increased the expression of MMP13 in liver tissue and reduced collagen I deposition in an experimental mouse model of liver fibrosis. Results Optimization of HA/PEI/pMMP13 complexes The MMP13 complementary DNA was inserted into pIRES2-EGFP vector containing an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and enriched green fluorescent protein (EGFP) sequences (Figure 1a).
The resulting recombinant MMP13-encoding pIRES2-EGFP was named as plasmid DNA encoding MMP13 (pMMP13). Since IRES permits the translation of both MMP13 and EGFP from a single mRNA transcript, EGFP can be used as a surrogate marker of exogenously administered MMP13 gene. In this study, pIRES2-EGFP vector without MMP13 complementary DNA (pVector) was used as an expression vector control. Figure 1 Schematic representation for the construction of pMMP13 and formation of HA-shielded PEI and plasmid DNA ternary complex for gene delivery. (a) MMP13 cDNA was inserted into the BglII/SalI sites of the pIRES2-EGFP expression vector encoding EGFP. Batimastat The recombinant … To enhance the organ and cell level delivery efficiency, negatively charged pMMP13 was electrostatically complexed with cationic PEI and shielded with HA (HA/PEI/pMMP13 complexes) (Figure 1b). The formation of HA/PEI/pMMP13 complexes was physicochemically confirmed by measuring the change in zeta-potentials, which were different for HA/PEI/pMMP13 ternary complexes with different HA and PEI composition.
1�C0.2mM (Chawla et al, 1984; Gmunder et al, 1991). Therefore, inhibitor we defined the normal cystine concentration to be 0.1mM cystine. Accordingly, cystine concentrations lower than 0.1mM or higher than 0.2mM were considered as low or high cystine concentrations, respectively. Cell survival/proliferation assay Cell proliferation and viability were determined by neutral red uptake (Babich and Borenfreund, 1991). Cells were plated in 96-well plates at 1000 cells per well. The next day, cells were treated as dictated by the particular experiments. Wells were then aspirated and incubated with 100��l 0.0025% neutral red dye in cell culture medium. Empty wells were also incubated with neutral red dye to allow for background absorbance correction.
After 4h of incubation, wells were aspirated and 100��l 1% acetic acid in 50% ethanol was added per well to solubilise intracellular neutral red dye. Absorbance was determined at 550nm using a 96-well VERSA max microplate reader (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). RNA isolation and q-RT�CPCR Isolation of total RNA from cultured cells in vitro or tumour cells in vivo was performed using an RNeasy Micro kit (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. RNA (5��g) was used to synthesise first-strand cDNA using the Superscript II RT�CPCR kit (Invitrogen), according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. q-RT�CPCRs were performed in 384-well plates using SYBR? Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) in a volume of 15��l (containing 50ng of cDNA).
Fluorescence emission was detected for each PCR cycle on a ABI Prism? 7900 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems) and threshold cycle (Ct) values were determined based on a 40-cycle reaction. Thermal cycling conditions were 50��C for 2min and 95��C for 5min, followed by 40 cycles of 15s at 95��C, 30s at 58��C, and 30s at 72��C. Average Ct values from duplicate PCRs were normalised to average Ct values for the housekeeping gene ��-2-microglobulin (��2M) from the same cDNA preparations. The relative mRNA expression of a gene was calculated as follows: Average Ct (��2M)?Average Ct (gene)=d; mRNA expression relative to ��2M=2^(d). Each q-RT�CPCR was carried out in duplicate.
Primer sequences are as follows: mouse 4F2hc: Dacomitinib forward 5��-GAGGACAGGCTTTTGATTGCAG-3��, reverse 5��-AGGTAGGAGCTGGTCAACAGCA-3��; mouse xCT: forward 5��-GAGGACAGGCTTTTGATTGCAG-3��, reverse 5��-AGGTAGGAGCTGGTCAACAGCA-3��; mouse ��2M: forward 5��-CACCCCCACTGAGAGACTGATACA-3��, reverse 5��-TGATGCTTGATCACATGTCTCG-3��; human 4F2hc: forward 5��-AGTGCCAACATGACTGTGAAG-3��, reverse 5��-CCTTACTCCGCTGGTCACTCAG-3��; human xCT: forward 5��-TGCTGGCTGGTTTTACCTCAAC-3��, reverse 5��-CCAATGGTGACAATGGCCAT-3��; human ��2M: forward 5��-ACCATGTGACTTTGTCACAGCC-3��, reverse 5��-AATCCAAATGCGGCATCTTC-3��.
For T-CEA, the low and high expression scores were defined as < 6 and �� 6, respectively (Fig. 1) . Figure 1 High expression of CEA in colorectal cancer (�� 75%). Statistical analysis All statistical calculations were performed using spss version 10.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). The differences in the clinico-pathological characteristics selleck screening library between low and high S-CEA or T-CEA expression were performed by Pearson chi-square. The relationship between S-CEA and T-CEA was also calculated by Pearson chi-square. Disease-free survival time (in months) was measured from the date of surgery to the time of event (recurrence or metastasis) or to the last census prior to closure of the study (1 August 2003). Kaplan�CMeier survival analysis with the Log Rank test was used to evaluate the prognosis of serum and tissue CEA in CRC.
Multivariate analysis was performed with Cox��s proportional hazard regression model to assess the effects of different variables on patients�� survival. Differences were taken as significant when P (two-tailed) was < 0.05. Results In this study, there were 173 patients with CRC including 86 male subjects and 87 female subjects. The median age of all patients was 59 years (range 27�C85 years). 37.0% (64/173) patients had a high level of S-CEA including 29 male subjects and 35 female subjects, while 63.0% (109/173) patients were in the low S-CEA group. 39.3% (68/173) patients were in the high T-CEA group (38 male subjects and 30 female subjects).
Comparison of clinico-pathological features between high and low S-CEA or T-CEA There were no significant differences in gender, age, tumour size, tumour gross type, mucin production, differentiation grade, venous invasion, stage distribution, T and N classification between the low and high S-CEA or T-CEA groups (Table 1). Table 1 Clinico-pathological characteristics in S-CEA and T-CEA group n (%). The relationship between S-CEA and T-CEA groups There was no significant relationship between groups of S-CEA and T-CEA (P=0.215) (Table 2). Table 2 The relationship between S-CEA and T-CEA groups. Relationship of S-CEA to disease-free survival by univariate analyses The mean disease-free survival time after operation in the low S-CEA group was longer than patients of high level of S-CEA (68.4 vs 51.3 months, 95% CI), but there was no significant difference between them (P=0.3709) (Fig.
2). Figure 2 Kaplan�CMeier survival analysis for the difference of disease free survival time between low and high S-CEA. Relationship of T-CEA with disease-free survival by univariate analyses Kaplan�CMeier survival analysis with the Log Rank test showed that the mean disease-free survival time after operation in the low T-CEA Brefeldin_A group was significantly longer than in the high T-CEA group (72.0 vs 55.8 months, P=0.028) (Fig. 3).
Before treatment with recombinant human IFN-�� (1000 U/ml; sellectchem Roche, Basel, Switzerland) and/or spermidine (100 ��M; Merck, Darmstadt, Germany), 5��105 cells were seeded for 2 days in 24-well plates (Techno Plastic Products AG, Trasadingen, Switzerland). Preparation of Whole Cell Lysates After treatment, THP-1 cells were kept on ice. Cells were washed twice with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and lysed in M-Per Mammalian protein extraction reagent? (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL) supplemented with the protease inhibitor cocktail tablets ��Complete mini?�� (Roche) for 30�C45 min. Cells were then centrifuged for 10 min at 13,000 g, and supernatants were collected. Protein concentration was quantified by UV280 nm using a NanoDrop ND1000 (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA).
RNA Isolation and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Total RNA was isolated using an RNeasy? Mini Kit (Qiagen, D��sseldorf, Germany) and a QIA-Cube automated sample preparer (Qiagen). RNA concentration was determined by UV260 nm using a NanoDrop ND1000 (Thermo Scientific). cDNA synthesis was performed using a High-Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Life Technologies Ltd). Real-time PCR was performed using TaqMan Gene Expression Assays (Life Technologies Ltd) and TaqMan Fast Universal PCR Master Mix No AmpErase UNG (Life Technologies Ltd) on a 7900 HT Fast Real-Time PCR System with SDS 2.2 Software (Life Technologies Ltd). Measurements were performed in triplicates, using the gene for human ��-actin as an endogenous control.
Phosphatase Activity Assay Phosphatase activity was assessed using the EnzChek? Phosphatase Assay Kit (Life Technologies Ltd) according to the manufacturer��s instructions and as described previously . Western Blot Proteins were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes (Life Technologies Ltd). Membranes were blocked overnight with blocking solution (Tris-buffered saline containing 1% Tween 20 supplemented with 5% bovine serum albumin), and incubated with the diluted primary antibody (concentrations according to the manufacture?s instructions) in blocking solution for an appropriate time. Membranes were washed with washing solution (blocking solution without bovine serum albumin) for 1 h, and then incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled secondary anti-mouse-, anti-goat- or anti-rabbit-IgG-antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.
, Santa Cruz, CA) diluted (13000) in blocking solution for up to 30 min. Finally, membranes were washed for 1 h with washing solution and immunoreactive proteins were detected using an enhanced chemiluminescence detection kit (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, Cilengitide UK). Densitometric analysis of Western blots was performed using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Image software.
PCLS were sonicated in 0.4 ml NaCl (0.9%) before the addition selleck chemical of 2.5 ml of isopropanol/heptane (41) for TG extraction. After 1 h of incubation at room temperature, 1.5 ml of heptane and 1 ml of water were added to the samples. For slices incubated with palmitate, the organic phase was rinsed two times with NaOH 1N/water/ethanol (54550). TG collected from the upper organic phase was counted in 10 ml scintillation fluid (Ultima Gold) in a beta Wallac-1410 counter. For fatty acid oxidation, PCLS were prepared from CT (n=8) and DEF (n=6) fasted mice. After 30 minutes of preincubation, PCLS were incubated in Waymouth medium (supplemented with 0.1 ��M insulin, 1% penicillin/streptomycin and 0.1% bovine serum albumin) containing 0.2 mM [14C]-palmitate (0.4 mCi/mmol) for 3 h at 37��C in a shaking water-bath.
Flasks were gassed with O2/CO2 (955) and sealed with rubber caps equipped with suspended plastic center wells, containing 400 ��l of NaOH 10%. Incubations were terminated by addition of 1 ml of HCLO4 5%. Control flasks were acidified immediately prior to addition of liver slices. To trap the 14CO2, an additional 60 min of shaking was allowed. To determine the amount of produced CO2, all the NaOH was counted in 10 ml scintillation fluid. Hepatic triglycerides secretion Following a 4 h fasting period, CT (n=4) and DEF (n=6) mice were injected with a 10% solution of Tyloxapol (0.5 mg of Tyloxapol/g body weight) (T0307-5G, Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, USA) through the tail vein to inhibit TG degradation by lipoprotein lipase.
Plasma samples were collected through the tail vein before the injection (0 min) and 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after Tyloxapol injection. TG in plasma was measured using Diasys Diagnostic and
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive single-stranded RNA virus, is one of the major causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide (5). The nucleotide sequence of the HCV genome is an important predictor of response to antiviral therapy (6). Genotypic analysis is used together with measurement of viral load (VL) to help in the management of patients with HCV infection (1). The 5�� untranslated region (UTR) is often used for monitoring VL because it is less variable than other regions of the genome and consequently less likely to suffer PCR failures due to sequence variation at the primer binding sites (3, 6, 8).
Although this region is not ideal for determination of the genotype, it is often used for this purpose because of the availability of the template after a VL assay and also because the genotypic information needed for clinical use can be obtained from it (2, 4, 9, 10). Our initial attempt to sequence the HCV 5�� UTR using the reverse transcription-PCR Brefeldin_A (RT-PCR) amplicon from the recently introduced Roche Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test (HCV-T) (8) employed a set of sequencing primers originally described by Gargiulo et al.
001). Except for bilateral hip selleck chem joint effusion, all E3 and E4 findings were detected in patients with suspected CD, and one patient had 2 E3 findings (Table (Table22). Clinical impact of extra-intestinal findings Extra-intestinal findings resulted in 12 clinical interventions in 9 patients (3.2%). The interventions consisted of ultrasound examination in one, ultrasound-guided biopsy in one, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and biopsy in one, CT-scan in one, gynecological examination including transvaginal ultrasound in 5, surgery in one and biochemical tests in one (Table (Table3).3). Succeeding work-up resulted in 5 true positive extra-intestinal findings and 3 false positive findings. One patient with bilateral hip joint effusion failed to attend the follow-up ultrasound examination.
Table 3 Previously unknown extra-intestinal findings leading to further examinations and the result of diagnostic work-up In a patient with suspected CD, MRI showed an enlarged bladder. The patient was referred for further urological examinations, and was subsequently diagnosed with a previously unknown prostate cancer. In another patient, MRI revealed a 6 cm wide and 9 cm long abdominal aortic aneurysm. CT scan of the aorta confirmed the aneurysm, and ruled out rupture. Five patients diagnosed with one or more lesions associated with the female genitals had further diagnostic work-up. In one patient, MRI showed a 6 cm large lesion in the small pelvis, and the finding was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound.
The patient underwent surgery, which showed a 5 cm �� 4 cm �� 5 cm torquated leiomyoma in the top of the uterus and 2 smaller leiomyomas in the anterior wall of the uterus. The surgeon performed a hysterectomy. Incidental findings in the colon MRI revealed incidental Carfilzomib findings located in the colon and not related to inflammatory bowel disease in 16 patients (5.7%, Table Table4),4), of whom 5 also had an extra-intestinal finding (E2 in all). In 12 patients, colonic findings were of minor or no clinical relevance. Four patients underwent additional examinations because of mucosal changes not characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease. The examinations revealed no pathological conditions. Table 4 Sixteen incidental findings located in the colon and their clinical impact DISCUSSION Few studies have dealt with incidental findings in abdominal MRI. In a recent retrospective study, Herfarth et al analyzed extra-intestinal findings in MRI-enteroclysis. In 710 patients with suspected or known inflammatory bowel disease 57% had extra-intestinal lesions and 12% of the observed lesions were of major clinical importance. In 5 patients (0.
This may reflect a healthy selection of people for those vaccinated and that our risk estimates for neurological and autoimmune outcomes may be underestimates. Comparisons Pancreatic cancer with previous studies and findings Most available data on the safety of A (H1N1) pandemic vaccines��with Pandemrix being the most commonly used vaccine in the European Union (estimated use in some 30 million)��are based on reports of spontaneous adverse drug events to national regulatory agencies. Such data have been generally reassuring during and after the pandemic period. However, an increased risk of narcolepsy in children and adolescents, with increased relative risks ranging from fourfold to ninefold, have been recently reported from authorities in Sweden and Finland,17 18 19 leading to regulatory action by the European drug regulatory body, the European Medicines Agency, in July 2011 to restrict the use of Pandemrix vaccinations.
25 Regarding other outcomes, some pertinent conclusions can be drawn from published studies on the safety of influenza vaccinations in general. Although previous studies have produced conflicting results on an association between Guillain-Barr�� syndrome and influenza vaccination,8 9 10 26 two larger studies reported no positive association.27 28 In our study we found no association between vaccination with an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine and Guillain-Barr�� syndrome. Our findings are consistent with a Chinese study of a non-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine14 and add to that study because we were able to estimate hazard ratios and our study population was not restricted to previously healthy people.
Although a large number of studies have examined the association between various types of vaccinations and type 1 diabetes,29 30 31 32 none has shown an association.33 To our knowledge no studies have been carried out on influenza vaccinations (for example, using squalene adjuvanted vaccines) and risk of type 1 diabetes. In our study we found no association between H1N1 vaccination and type 1 diabetes in AV-951 the age group where most cases of the disease occur (those born in 1990 and later). The excess risk for paraesthesia may constitute a local symptom (for example, pain, redness, swelling, tingling) at the injection site from the H1N1 vaccination. The excess risk of paraesthesia was only of borderline significance (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.23) and absent in patients undergoing vaccination in the late phase. We cannot explain the small increase in risk for Bell��s palsy seen in this study. Potential causes include viral infection and pregnancy, neither of which could be dealt with using the data in our analyses. The absolute risk of Bell��s palsy was low, 6.4 cases per 100000 vaccinated population.
The 2007 sample includes data from 2,931 students who self-identified as Black only. A more detailed description of the sampling methods and study procedures is published elsewhere (Brenner et al., 2004). Sample weights were included in analyses to adjust for survey nonresponse and sample selection probabilities. Primary sampling units (PSU) and stratum variables were included overnight delivery to account for the complex sampling design. All missing data were handled using the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) capabilities of Mplus. Measures The 2007 YRBS included 95 items covering a range of domains including substance use, mental health and other health-related behaviors. Tobacco use was measured by five questions.
Respondents indicated whether they had ever smoked a cigarette (even a puff or two), age first smoked a whole cigarette, number of days smoked in the past 30 days, number of cigarettes smoked per day in the past 30 days, and whether or not they had ever smoked everyday for 30 days. To measure suicidality, the following items were used: whether or not the respondent had ever felt sad/hopeless for 2 weeks, whether they had seriously thought about ending their own life, whether they had made plans to end their own life, and number of times they attempted to end their own life. Finally, gender and educational level were included as demographic covariates. Analysis Plan LCA was used to identify homogenous subgroups of youth based first on response patterns to smoking behaviors and second on indicators of suicidality, controlling for age and gender in each of these models.
After determining the appropriate number of classes for each set of behaviors, a final model was run in which the association between smoking class membership and suicidal behavior class membership was assessed while controlling for age and gender effects on each through multinomial logistic regression (Lewinsohn, Rohde, Seeley, & Baldwin, 2001). All analyses were conducted using Mplus 5.21 (Lubke & Muth��n, 2005; McCutcheon, 1987) and incorporated sample weights, stratum, and cluster variables to account for the complex sampling design of the YRBS. To determine the number of classes for both smoking and suicidal behaviors, an initial series of models were conducted. For each, an initial one-class (no covariates) model was assessed followed by a series of models with covariates specifying increased number of classes (e.g., two-class, three-class, etc.) representing different patterns of tobacco use behavior. Similar procedures were also Carfilzomib implemented for suicidality indicators.
It is possible selleck that the concept of working together as a team is very different in a sample in which motivation and efficacy to quit are more variable. Indeed, smokers in our study had high levels of dyadic efficacy at baseline, and it may be that this reflects a unique group of couples with better than average relationships. In addition, we collected data from only one partner in dyads, preventing us from understanding the support providers�� perspectives. An additional limitation is that our response rates at follow-up were low, limiting our ability to detect potential relationships between dyadic efficacy and quit outcomes over time. In addition, important aspects of relationship functioning were not assessed in this study.
In particular, we did not assess negative support, which may be relevant to dyadic efficacy and quit outcomes particularly in couples for whom teamwork is maladaptive. Finally, we did not assess relationship functioning at follow-up, and it is possible that changes in relationships over the course of the study could impact dyadic efficacy or smoking cessation outcomes. Given our preliminary findings, future studies should examine dyadic efficacy over time to evaluate its properties and stability over the quit attempt process. In addition, future studies should examine perceptions of dyadic efficacy in both partners in couples and assess potential relationships between dyadic efficacy and other outcomes important to quitting. Also, because research shows that negative support can undermine smoking cessation efforts in the context of smoking cessation (e.
g., Cohen & Lichtenstein, 1990), future research should examine how dyadic efficacy relates to specific support and coping behaviors across the process of trying to quit. With further testing, this dyadic efficacy instrument could be useful to further our understanding of how partners work together to cope with the challenges of quitting smoking. For example, just as prior smoking cessation interventions have been informed by Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986) by building smokers�� self-efficacy and skills using goal-setting, modeling, and reinforcement to achieve cessation goals, similar interventions could be developed to improve dyadic efficacy for smoking cessation in couples. For example, one couple��s intervention based on family systems principles (Shoham, Rohrbaugh, Trost, & Muramoto, 2006) was found to be feasible and showed promising abstinence rates of 50% at 6 months for program participants. Ultimately, research in Dacomitinib the area of teamwork may inform the development of interventions to improve outcomes in partnered smokers. Funding Dr.
Recipients were sacrificed, and liver samples were harvested selleckchem for detection of human hepatocyte engraftment. Fah?/? Rag2?/?Ilr2g?/? recipients on NTBC were as controls. FAH antibody immunostaining indicated that liver samples from 5 of 8 Fah?/?Rag2?/?Ilr2g?/? recipients had FAH-positive hepatocytes at levels from 3.1% to 71.3% of total hepatocytes (Figure 1A, Supplemental Table 1 at http://ajp.amjpathol.org). However, the Fah?/?Rag2?/? Il2rg?/? mouse breeders have a very small litter size in our colony breeding process (Supplemental Figure 1 at http://ajp.amjpathol.org). For this reason, Fah?/?Rag2+/-Il2rg+/? mice could be used as breeders to generate Fah?/?Rag2?/?Il2rg?/? mice. Number of Fah?/?Rag2?/? Il2rg?/? mice was much lower than expected, and only between 1 in 30 and 1 in 20 offspring had the triple homozygous mutant genotype.
The pups with genotype of Fah?/?Rag2?/?Il2rg?/? were also less fit than Fah?/? and Fah?/?Rag2?/? littermates. They had about 60% more death during colony breeding and after surgery for cell transplantation (Supplemental Figure 2 at http://ajp.amjpathol.org). Because of the significantly low numbers of Fah?/?Rag2?/?Il2rg?/? mice during colony breeding and the significant numbers of Fah?/?Rag2?/?Il2rg?/? recipients lost after cell transplantation, Fah?/?Rag2?/? Il2rg?/? mice could not be used for efficient generation of humanized mice. Thus, we chose the Fah?/?Rag2?/? mouse to study the capacity for human hepatocyte repopulation after pharmacological treatment to deplete NK cells.
Figure 1 Depletion of NK cells by anti-asialo GM1 enabled liver xeno-repopulation from human hepatocytes in Fah?/?Rag2?/? mice. Comparison of FAH-positive hepatocytes found in Fah?/?Rag2?/?Il2rg?/? … Human Hepatocyte Engraftment in Fah?/?Rag2?/? Mice after NK Cell Depletion Using the same experimental protocol and under same conditions, we determined the capacities of repopulation from human hepatocytes in Fah?/?Rag2?/? mice. Fah?/? Rag2?/? recipients on NTBC were used as controls that were free of induced liver injury. Three of 17 Fah?/? Rag2?/? recipients were found with detectable FAH-positive hepatocytes, existing in single cells and small nodules (Figure 1B; Supplemental Table 1 at http://ajp.amjpathol.org). Xeno-engraftment of human hepatocytes in Fah?/?Rag2?/? recipients was not successful in a previous report.
7 Without treatment of gradual withdrawal of NTBC before cell transplantation, but instead with abrupt removal of NTBC after cells were transplanted, none of eight Entinostat Fah?/?Rag2?/?Ilr2g?/? and eight Fah?/?Rag2?/? recipients had any detectable FAH positive hepatocytes (Supplemental Table 1 at http://ajp.amjpathol.org). In addition, eight Fah?/?Rag2?/?Ilr2g?/? and eight Fah?/?Rag2?/? recipients that were always kept on NTBC had no detectable FAH positive hepatocytes (Supplemental Table 1 at http://ajp.amjpathol.org).