Epidemiological studies accounting for multiple colonization can provide a more precise picture of the serotypes colonizing the nasopharynx, which can then be tested in developing animal models. This approach may help
predict the virulence potential of these serotypes for their inclusion in pneumococcal vaccines even before they become major disease agents in humans. This work was supported by projects GRACE (contract LSHM-CT-2005-518226) and PNEUMOPATH (contract HEALTH-F3-2009-222983) from the European Commission and project PTDC/SAU-ESA/65048/2006 from Fundação para a Ciência Antidiabetic Compound Library supplier e Tecnologia (FCT). N.F. was supported by FCT grant SFRH/BD/30103/2006. see more We gratefully acknowledge the directors, staff, parents and children at the participating day care centers. We thank R. Mato, I. Santos-Sanches, A. Brito-Avô, J. Saldanha, S. Nunes, N. Sousa, C. Simas, A. Gonçalves and P. Gonzaga for participating in studies that led to the isolation and initial characterization of the pneumococcal collection
described here. We would like to thank A. Tomasz for help with the study design, interpretation of the results and revision of the manuscript and F. Pinto for discussions on statistical analysis. “
“Extensive experimental and clinical data that reinforce the key roles of new blood vessel formation in tumor development, progression, and metastasis  has converted inhibition
of neo-angiogenesis, and in particular of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)–VEGF receptors system, into an active cancer therapeutic Sodium butyrate platform. Biological and synthetic inhibitors of angiogenesis approved as drugs or in advanced study exert their therapeutic effect at four different key steps of the VEGF pro-angiogenic cascade. Rapamicin ,  and , COX-2 inhibitors ,  and , and thalidomide ,  and  decrease VEGF production by tumor cells. Bevacizumab, the humanized recombinant antibody against VEGF-A , and aflibercept  and  prevent circulating VEGF from interacting with its receptors. Antibodies as IMC-1121b  directly block access to monomeric VEGF receptor 2 in the cell surface of endothelial cells. Finally, small synthetic drugs as Sorafenib tosylate and Sunitinib malate  interfere with the intracellular VEGF receptor signaling pathways in endothelial and tumor cells. We have recently developed a therapeutic cancer vaccine candidate (hereafter denominated CIGB-247) with recombinant modified human VEGF produced in E. coli as antigen, combined with a potent adjuvant formed by very small sized proteoliposomes (VSSP) derived from the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane .