For isolation we used a medium based on the natural water supplemented with peptone and yeast extract. This medium allows a wide phylogenetic and physiological range of water bacteria to be isolated. Previous studies looking at the antibiotic resistant bacteria in freshwater environments have
largely used growth media that select for specific phylogenetic or physiological types of bacteria [7, 29, 30]. The growth medium most similar to the one used by us is Luria-Bertani, which is more nutritious and has been used rarely . Our direct plating approach should allow a wide diversity to be isolated from the community, including rare species. An alternative approach that could be used is prior enrichment of the community members in batch cultures containing only the natural medium i.e. Tideglusib river water, supplemented with antibiotics. However, that method would only enable study of the predominant bacteria, and would miss rare species. As selective agents five antibiotics were used: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline. These antibiotics were chosen to cover a range of drug targets: DNA replication, protein translation and cell wall synthesis. The antibiotic concentrations were chosen selleck kinase inhibitor to be greater than or close to the
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cutoff values for resistance according to EUCAST . The bacteria were isolated Acetophenone by plating the sampled water directly on to the selective media, followed by incubation at 18°C for several days. The exact incubation period
was adjusted according to the growth rate of the colonies. After incubation a set of colonies was selected from each plate and re-streaked several times to obtain pure strains. At least ten colonies were collected from each plate. These colonies were selected to cover the variety of colony morphologies observed. Where there were more than ten morphological types on the plate, the number of collected isolates was increased to include representatives of all the morphotypes. The collection contained 760 isolates. For all of the isolates the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified from the genomic DNA and sequenced. The isolates were assembled, using the Ribosome Database Project, according to the 16S rRNA gene sequences, into 9 phylogenetic classes: Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, Deinococci, Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria and Thermoprotei (Figure 1). These classes in turn contain representatives of 59 genera. The class containing the largest number of isolates was Gammaproteobacteria, with almost half (49%) of the isolates. More than half (58%) of the Repotrectinib Gammaproteobacteria isolates were the 217 strains of Pseudomonas. No other genera were represented by more than 100 isolates.