For isolation we used a medium based on the natural water supplem

For isolation we used a medium based on the natural water supplemented with peptone and yeast extract. This medium allows a wide phylogenetic and physiological range of water bacteria to be isolated. Previous studies looking at the antibiotic resistant bacteria in freshwater environments have

largely used growth media that select for specific phylogenetic or physiological types of bacteria [7, 29, 30]. The growth medium most similar to the one used by us is Luria-Bertani, which is more nutritious and has been used rarely [31]. Our direct plating approach should allow a wide diversity to be isolated from the community, including rare species. An alternative approach that could be used is prior enrichment of the community members in batch cultures containing only the natural medium i.e. Tideglusib river water, supplemented with antibiotics. However, that method would only enable study of the predominant bacteria, and would miss rare species. As selective agents five antibiotics were used: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline. These antibiotics were chosen to cover a range of drug targets: DNA replication, protein translation and cell wall synthesis. The antibiotic concentrations were chosen selleck kinase inhibitor to be greater than or close to the

minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cutoff values for resistance according to EUCAST [32]. The bacteria were isolated Acetophenone by plating the sampled water directly on to the selective media, followed by incubation at 18°C for several days. The exact incubation period

was adjusted according to the growth rate of the colonies. After incubation a set of colonies was selected from each plate and re-streaked several times to obtain pure strains. At least ten colonies were collected from each plate. These colonies were selected to cover the variety of colony morphologies observed. Where there were more than ten morphological types on the plate, the number of collected isolates was increased to include representatives of all the morphotypes. The collection contained 760 isolates. For all of the isolates the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified from the genomic DNA and sequenced. The isolates were assembled, using the Ribosome Database Project, according to the 16S rRNA gene sequences, into 9 phylogenetic classes: Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, Deinococci, Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria and Thermoprotei (Figure 1). These classes in turn contain representatives of 59 genera. The class containing the largest number of isolates was Gammaproteobacteria, with almost half (49%) of the isolates. More than half (58%) of the Repotrectinib Gammaproteobacteria isolates were the 217 strains of Pseudomonas. No other genera were represented by more than 100 isolates.

The phenazine operon has been well characterized in many

The phenazine operon has been well characterized in many

pseudomonads, with phzABCDEFG comprising the core biosynthetic locus [20]. In this study, proteins with locus tags MOK_01048 and MOK_01049, identified as phenazine biosynthesis protein A/B, were Savolitinib significantly downregulated (Table 1). All selleck chemical phenazine-producing pseudomonads have an adjacent and nearly identical copy of the phzB gene, termed phzA[20]. PhzA catalyzes the condensation reaction of two ketone molecules in the phenazine biosynthesis pathway [20]. PhzF (identified as MOK_01053 in this study) works as an isomerase, converting trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (DHHA) into 6-amino-5-oxocyclohex-2-ene-1-carboxylic acid prior to the condensation reaction catalyzed by the PhzA/B proteins [20]. phzG encodes an FMN-dependent pyridoxamine oxidase (identified as MOK_01054 in this study), which is hypothesized to catalyze see more the conversion of DHHA to 5,10-Dihydro-PCA [21]. In some pseudomonads, genes downstream of the core biosynthetic operon are required for generation

of phenazine derivatives [22–24]. In P. chlororaphis 30–84, for example, phzO lies downstream of the core operon; PhzO is an aromatic hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of PCA into 2-OH-PHZ [23]. More recently, in P. chlororaphis gp72, the phzO gene was shown to convert PCA into 2-OH-PHZ through a 2-OH-PCA intermediate [25]. Like other P. chlororaphis strains, PA23 produces 2-OH-PHZ and we believe the downregulated aromatic ring hydroxylase (MOK_01055) is PhzO. Therefore, in the absence of a functional Rutecarpine ptrA gene, four of the core phenazine biosynthetic enzymes (PhzA, PhzB, PhzF, PhzG) and one aromatic ring hydroxylase (PhzO) are significantly downregulated. The fact that PtrA

plays a critical role in regulating phz expression was not surprising considering the lack of orange pigment produced by the ptrA mutant (Figures 1 and 2A). Reduced phenazine expression was further substantiated by quantitative assays. As illustrated in Figure 2B, there is a 15-fold decrease in phenazine production in PA23-443 compared to the PA23 wild type. When ptrA was expressed in trans, some restoration of phenazine production was achieved. Chitinase production is under PtrA control Our iTRAQ proteomic results showed that two chitinase enzymes (MOK_03378 and MOK_05478) were significantly downregulated in the PA23-443 mutant (Table 1). These results were supported by chitinase assays, which clearly indicated no detectable enzyme activity in the ptrA mutant (Table 2). Addition of plasmid-borne ptrA elevated chitinase activity close to that of the wild type (Table 2). Collectively our findings indicate that ptrA is necessary for chitinase production. The LTTR, ChiR, has been previously shown to indirectly regulate all chitinases produced in Serratia marcescens 2170 [26]. Proteomic analysis of a P.

7 Glucose 53 5 Galactose 29 2 Arabinose 17 3 Xylose 5 8 Rhamnose

7 Glucose 53.5 Galactose 29.2 Arabinose 17.3 Xylose 5.8 Rhamnose 2.8 Ribose 2.2 Figure 4 Transmission electron microscopy of negatively

stained exopolysaccharides isolated from Prevotella intermedia Berzosertib in vivo strains 17 culture supernatants. Note the fine fibrous structures that are formed in bundles. Bar = 500 nm. Gene expression profiles of P. intermedia strains 17 and 17-2 To see what kind of gene expression events induce phenotypic differences on P. intermedia, we compared gene expression patterns between strains 17 and 17-2, the respective viscous material producing and non-producing strains using microarray analysis. To determine the appropriate time point for isolating total RNA, we first observed the morphological changes of cell surface structures in each strain along with the bacterial growth. In general, the growth of strain 17-2 was faster than that of strain 17, entering into an exponential phase at around 12 h and reaching the plateau in 24 h (Fig. 5A, open rhombus). Strain 17-2 did not show the presence of cell-associated fibrous materials at selleckchem any stage of the growth cycle (Fig. 5C). By contrast, strain 17 showed a slower growth rate (Fig. 5A, hatched square)

with a longer exponential growth phase. Morphological observation of cultures at different stages of growth revealed that strain 17 exhibited cell surface-associated meshwork-like structures at 12 h and the structures became denser with time (Fig 5B). From these preliminary data, 12 h-old cultures of strains 17 and 17-2 were chosen for Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) a comparison of gene expression patterns. When the microarray expression data for strains 17 and 17-2 were compared, a total of 11 genes were up-regulated by at least two-fold with statistic significance (p < 0.05) in biofilm-forming P. intermedia strain

17 (Table 3). The expression data demonstrated that several heat shock protein (HSP) genes, such as dnaJ, dnaK, groES, groEL and clpB were up-regulated in strain 17 (Table 3). We also identified two genes down-regulated at least two-fold in strain 17 (PINA2115: Dasatinib concentration Hypothetical protein; PINA2117: sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) site 2 protease family). The original raw data files have been deposited in Center for Information Biology gene Expression database (CIBEX; Mishima, Japan; CIBEX accession: CBX27) [17]. Table 3 Genes showing at least two-fold higher expression levels in biofilm-forming Prevotella intermedia strain 17 than those of non-forming variant strain 17-2 Gene Fold change Annotation PIN0258 2.63 Hypothetical protein PIN0281 3.42 Heat shock protein 90, HtpG PINA0419 2.17 Hypothetical protein PINA0775 2.47 Patatin-like phospholipase family protein PINA1058 2.28 DnaK protein PINA1693 2.09 Folylpolyglutamate synthase, FolC PINA1756 2.35 Heat shock protein, DnaJ PINA1757 2.31 Hypothetical protein PINA1797 2.33 Chaperonin, 60 kDa, GroEL PINA1798 2.39 Chaperonin, 10 kDa, GroES PINA2006 2.17 ClpB protein Figure 5 Growth of P.

The results indicated that the sustained

release behavior

The results indicated that the sustained

release behavior of the drug carrier was in favor of a durative drug effect. In order to investigate the properties of the loaded drug, the UV–vis absorption spectra of the IBU hexane solution before and after IBU loading in SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs were measured. The results are shown in Figure 7B. Curves a, b, and c were the IBU hexane solution before drug loading, GDC-0941 datasheet the SBF solution after the release of IBU-loaded SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs for 4 h, and the SBF solution after the release of IBU-loaded SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs for 70 h, respectively. It was noticed that the shape of the absorption curves was essentially the same, which demonstrated that the property of IBU was not changed in the loading and release processes. We noticed that the samples still emitted fluorescence after the experiments of drug delivery and release, which indicated that the leftover I-BET-762 clinical trial via the loading and release processes can be tracked and detected. Conclusions We have reported an approach

of the synthesis of functional SiO2 · Re2O3 HSs using silica spheres, rare-earth ions, and an acidic environment. The size of synthesized PU-H71 concentration hollow capsules can be modulated by controlling the diameter of the silica template. The facile and economical synthesis protocol is valuable and convenient for wide use. Acting as drug-loaded capsules, the SiO2 · Re2O3 HSs demonstrated much excellent properties of high payloads, Selleckchem Alectinib retained drug activity and stability, and slow drug release rate. Furthermore, real-time detection may be carried out during drug delivery and release with SiO2 · Re2O3 HSs by measuring their fluorescence. Acknowledgements The authors express their thanks to Associate Prof. Rusen Yang (University of Minnesota) for the language polishing. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Supporting information. Table S1. Experimental results at different reaction conditions. Table S2. Different Re3+ ion (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) influence on the product during synthesis process. Figure S1. TEM images of different reaction temperatures, [Eu3+] = 0.06 mol/L, 12 h. Figure S2. TEM images of different Eu3+ concentrations,

250°C, 12 h. Figure S3. TEM images of different pH values of solutions, 250°C, [Eu3+] = 0.06 mol/L, 12 h. Figure S4. TEM images of SiO2 · Re2O3 HSs prepared by different Re 3+ assistance: T = 250°C, pH = 4, [Re3+] = 0.06 mol/L, t = 12 h (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr). (DOC 857 KB) References 1. Van Bommel KJC, Jung JH, Shinkai S: Poly(L-lysine) aggregates as templates for the formation of hollow silica spheres. Adv Mater 2001,3(19):1472–1476.CrossRef 2. Fan WG, Gao LJ: Synthesis of silica hollow spheres assisted by ultrasound. J Colloid Interf Sci 2006,297(1):157–160.CrossRef 3. Yeh YQ, Chen BC, Lin HP, Tang CY: Synthesis of hollow silica spheres with mesostructured shell using cationic-anionic-neutral block copolymer ternary surfactants. Langmuir 2006,22(1):6–9.CrossRef 4.

In Haemophilus ducreyi, inactivation of the gmhA gene has been sh

In Haemophilus ducreyi, inactivation of the gmhA gene has been shown to result in a truncated LOS and to reduce the BAY 57-1293 supplier ability of the organism to produce skin lesions in rabbits [59]. In addition, the ability of Salmonella this website enterica to kill Caenorhabditis elegans was impaired by insertional inactivation of the gmhA gene [60]. Mutation of another C. jejuni gene involved in synthesis of the LOS inner core, waaC, markedly impaired the ability of C. jejuni 81–176 to invade the intestinal cell line INT407 in vitro [61]. Strain NW was also missing a number of C. jejuni 11168 genes in complex loci involved in capsule synthesis and O-linked glycosylation of the flagellin protein. Extensive variation

in these loci has been reported in other microarray comparisons of C. jejuni strains [12]. Both flagella and capsule have C59 wnt price been reported to affect virulence in C. jejuni [18, 24]. The reason for the inability of strain D2586 to increase in virulence is not known, but a similar approach could be taken to examine gene content in comparison to strain 11168. The degree and complexity of the phenotypic changes we observed – increased fecal population

sizes, increased colonization of the jejunum, decreased time to develop severe disease, shift from watery to bloody diarrhea – suggest that the three evolving strains underwent genetic change at multiple loci, including loci that influence growth and loci that influence interaction with and damage to host tissues. We have no information on any specific genetic changes that led to these phenotypic changes at the present time; further studies on these strains will utilize gene expression microarrays to focus on the hypothesis that the changes in pathogenicity are tuclazepam due to changes in gene expression levels or patterns; experimental infection of C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice with C. jejuni 11168 derivatives containing targeted gene knockouts will be used to determine whether corresponding genes contribute to virulence in C. jejuni 11168. Outcome of C. jejuni infection and host

immune response were influenced by diet Results from two of three trials (the previous experiment with mice kept on an ~12% fat diet and an ~6% fat diet throughout the experiment and the full, balanced design comparison (experiment 5, diet comparison) of the effect of diet on the outcome of C. jejuni infection) did not indicate that there was an effect of diet on survival, gross pathology, or histopathology in mice infected with unpassaged C. jejuni 11168. On the other hand, results from the diet comparison conducted in the final phase of experiment 2 (serial passage experiment) did indicate such an effect. In addition, there was a significant effect of diet on plasma IgA levels in the full, balanced design experiment (experiment 5, diet comparison).

These results strongly suggest that the unique pattern of mep72 e

These results strongly suggest that the unique pattern of mep72 expression is due to the effect of Vfr-independent translational/post-translational regulation. This pattern of expression is not a feature of the Vfr regulon. Many genes of the Vfr regulon including

lasB, lasA, lasR are part of the quorum sensing system and as such, expression is induced at later rather than earlier stages of growth [16, 54]. The significance of this pattern of expression is not known at this time. However, during our analysis of the P. this website aeruginosa global regulator PtxR (using ptxR-lacZ transcriptional fusions), we previously reported a pattern of expression that mimics that of PA2782-mep72[55]. The expression of one of the ptxR-promoter nested deletions reached a peak at early stage of growth, sharply declined after that, and continued a low level of expression toward the end of growth cycle [55]. Similar

to mep72, Vfr binds SP600125 to the ptxR upstream and directly regulates ptxR expression [43]. Through the examination of the promoter regions of genes regulated by Vfr including lasR, toxA, pvdS, prpL, and algD, Kanack et al. developed a 21-bp Vfr binding consensus sequence that consist of two click here halves and contain several conserved nucleotides within each half [18]. Experimental evidence revealed that changing one or more of these conserved nucleotides within the lasR or fleQ promoters affected the expression of these genes and their regulation by Vfr [16, 18, 44]. Our current analysis confirmed that Vfr specifically binds to the PA2782-mep72 promoter (Figure 7C). As with other Vfr-regulated genes, Vfr binding to the PA2782-mep72 promoter is cAMP dependent (Figure 7C). However, in contrast to all previously identified Vfr binding sites, the potential Vfr binding region Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II within PA2782-mep72 does not contain the intact Vfr consensus sequence (Figure 7D and E). Rather, we localized Vfr binding within the PA2782-mep72 promoter to a 33-bp sequence (probe VI), which contains only 6 bp from the left half of the Vfr consensus sequence (Figure 7E). Careful examination of the sequence revealed the presence of a 5-bp imperfect inverted repeat, with two bp

mismatch (underscored), at either end of the 33-bp sequence: TGGCG-N22-CGCTG (Figure 7E). Compromising either of the repeats eliminated Vfr binding (Figure 7D and E). Thus, this sequence may constitute an alternative Vfr binding site. The TGGCG-N22-CGCTG sequence overlaps the −35 region (Figure 7E). Additionally, the 33-bp sequence contains two direct repeats (TG/TG and CA/CA) (Figure 7E). Furthermore, the 33-bp sequence contains another imperfect (7/9) inverted repeat consisting of 9 bp, TGGCGCAAA-N9-TTGCCGCCA. Probe VII, which lost the ability to bind Vfr, lacks only one bp (A) from the right side of this repeat (Figure 7E). Further analysis including DNA foot printing experiments will be done to determine the exact sequence to which Vfr binds.

Phytopathology 2010,100(6):567–572 PubMedCrossRef 22 Nei M, Taji

Phytopathology 2010,100(6):567–572.PubMedCrossRef 22. Nei M, Tajima F, Tateno Y: Accuracy of estimated phylogenetic trees from molecular data. II. Gene frequency data. J Mol Evol 1983,19(2):153–170.PubMedCrossRef 23. Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J: Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 2005,14(8):2611–2620.PubMedCrossRef 24. Williams DA, Overholt

WA, Cuda JP, Hughes CR: Chloroplast and microsatellite DNA diversities reveal the introduction history of Brazilian peppertree ( Schinus terebinthifoliu ) in Florida. Mol Ecol 2005,14(12):3643–3656.PubMedCrossRef 25. da Graça JV: Biology, history and world status of huanglongbing. In Memorias del Taller Internacional sobre el Huanglongbing y el Psílido asiático de los cítricos. Hermosillo, Sonora. México; 2008. 26. Zhao XY: Citrus yellow shoot (huanglongbing) in China: A review. Proceedings International Society of VX-689 manufacturer Citriculture 1981, 1:466–469. 27.

Beattie GAC, Mabberley DJ, Holford P, Broadbent P, de Barro P: Huanglongbing: its possible origins, collaborative research in Southeast Asia, and developing incursion management plans for Australia. Proceedings of the 2nd International Citrus Canker & Huanglongbing Research Workshop 2005, 52. 28. Capoor SP: Decline of citrus trees in India. Bull Natl Inst Sci India 1963, 24:48–64. 29. Raychaudhuri SP, Nariani TK, Lele VC: Citrus die-back problem in India.

Proceedings of the First International Citrus Symposium 1969, 3:1433–1437. 30. Halbert SE: The discovery of huanglongbing AZD0530 research buy (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate in Florida. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing Research Workshop. Orlando Florida, USA; 2005:50. 31. Bové JM, Garnier M: Citrus greening and psylla vectors of the disease in the Arabian peninsula. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologist 1984, 109–114. 32. Weinert MP, Jackson SC, Grimshaw JF, Bellis GA, Stephens PM, Gunea T, Kame MF, Davis RI: Detection of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease) in Timor-Leste (East Timor) and in Papua New Guinea. Aust Plant Pathol 2004, 33:135–136.CrossRef 33. Halbert SE, Niblett CL, Manjunath KL, Lee RF, Brown LG: Establishment of two new vectors of citrus find more pathogens in Florida. In Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture 9th Congress. Alexandria, Virgina, USA: ASHS Press; 2002:1016–1017. 34. Brlansky RH, Dewdney MM, Rogers ME: 2011 Florida citrus pest management guide: huanglongbing (citrus greening). [http://​edis.​ifas.​ufl.​edu] Plant Pathology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida 2010., SP-43: 35. Spann TM, Atwood RA, Dewdney MM, Ebel RC, Ehsani R, England G, Futch SH, Gaver T, Hurner T, Oswalt C, et al.: IFAS guidance for huanglongbing (greening) management. [http://​edis.​ifas.​ufl.

A) Cytospin of UM cells (92 1)

A) Cytospin of UM cells (92.1) isolated from the right eye of a control group rabbit. B) Cytospin of UM cells (92.1)

isolated from the right eye of a blue light treated rabbit. C) Cytospins of CMCs (92.1) isolated from the blood (buffy coat) of a control group rabbit. D) Negative Control (92.1) (400×). Proliferation Assay Cells from the blue light treated group proliferated significantly faster than the control group cells at the 48 h (p = 0.0112) and 72 h (p = 0.0018) time points. The CMCs isolated from the blue light group proliferated significantly faster (48 h) than the cells from the control group (p < 0.0001) (Figure 4). Figure 4 Box and Whisker plots depicting the change in cellular proliferation of re-cultured 92.1 cells from RepSox research buy rabbit eyes (O.D) when exposed to blue Alpelisib supplier light. A) Change in cellular proliferation of primary tumors after 48 h incubation. B) Change in cellular proliferation of primary tumors after 72 h incubation. C) Change in cellular proliferation of isolated CMCs after 48 h incubation. Discussion Current hypotheses indicate that several environmental and genetic factors may play a role in the progression of uveal melanoma formation [19–21]. Typical phenotypic progression of this disease usually begins with the appearance of benign nevi. Later

events include the transformation of the cells within the nevi to a spindle-cell and selleck compound eventually epithelioid-cell uveal melanoma. Epithelioid cells are considered the most aggressive type of uveal melanoma acetylcholine cells and carry the worst prognosis. This generalized progression towards a more malignant phenotype may also be influenced by exposure to natural sunlight, particularly the UV and blue light portions of the electromagnetic spectrum [22]. A recent meta-analysis by Shah et al identified

welding, which is a significant source of blue-light, as a risk-factor for uveal melanoma [20]. Interestingly, ocular melanoma could also be induced by exposing rats to blue-light during an experimental animal model [7]. The rationale behind a possible relationship between blue light and tumorigenesis is that visible light of short wavelengths can cause DNA damage [11]. The secondary mutation can be transferred to further generations of transformed cells ultimately generating a malignant clone. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that blue light increases the proliferation rate of uveal melanoma cell lines [6]. These results also indicated that the use of UV and blue light filtering intra-ocular lenses (IOLs) conferred a protective effect. These IOLs significantly reduced the proliferative effect that blue light caused in the un-protected uveal melanoma cells. As in vitro results can not necessarily be extrapolated to understand in vivo effects, we performed the current experiment using an established animal model of uveal melanoma [13]. When the re-cultured cells from the experimental group were compared to the control group, higher proliferation rates were seen.

YY carried out the blood collection from patients and health YH

YY carried out the blood collection from patients and health. YH participated in the ELISA assays. WL participated in the design of the

study and performed the statistical analysis. XX conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination. All authors read and approved the final manuscript”
“Introduction Breast cancer is the most common malignancy threatening the health and life of women and it’s incidence has increased in recent years in both developed and developing countries[1]. Biologic mechanisms leading to the development of breast cancer are not clearly GSK2126458 in vivo understood, but the role of cytokines in cancer immunity and carcinogenesis has been well established[2]. As a multifunctional Th2-cytokine with both immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic functions, interleukin-10 (IL-10) may have both tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting properties[3]. Recent data suggest that Selleckchem Tipifarnib polymorphic variations in the promoter learn more sequences of IL-10 gene may influence the gene expression[4, 5] and consequently play a certain role in susceptibility and clinical course of breast cancer. IL-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine mainly produced by activated T cells, monocytes, B cells and thymocytes. As an immune response

modulator, IL-10 can both stimulate and suppress the immune response[6]. Numerous studies have shown that IL-10 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer, but the results Phosphoprotein phosphatase were inconsistent. On the one hand, increased serum IL-10 levels could facilitate development of cancer by suppressing expression

of MHC class I and II antigens[7] and preventting tumor antigen presentation to CD8-cytotoxic T lymphocytes. On the other hand, anti-angiogenic effects of IL-10 are supposed to play a protective and preventive role against tumor. The gene encoding IL-10 is located on human chromosome 1q31-1q32[8, 9], and is composed of five exons and four introns. It has been reported that several important polymorphic sites in the IL-10 gene, including three in the promoter region (-1082 (A/G, -819 T/C, -592 A/C) may influence the transcription of IL-10 messenger RNA and the expression of IL-10 in vitro [10–12]. Although several studies have shown the possible involvement of IL-10 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, as well as its association with prognosis in different ethnic populations, the results were not all consistent[13]. Furthermore, little is known about the effect of these polymorphisms on the risk of beast cancer in the Han Chinese population. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether IL-10 gene promoter -1082A/G, -819T/C and -592A/C polymorphisms and haplotypes were associated with breast cancer in a Han Chinese population. Materials and methods Subjects Blood samples were taken from 315 breast cancer cases and 322 non-cancer controls.

The effect of treatment on mortality in “mild” hypertension: resu

The effect of treatment on mortality in “mild” hypertension: results of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. N Engl J Med. 1982;307:976–80.CrossRef 14. Liu L, Zhang Y, Liu G, Li W, Zhang X, Zanchetti A. The Felodipine Event Reduction (FEVER) Study:

a randomized long-term placebo-controlled trial in Chinese hypertensive patients. J Hypertens. 2005;23:2157–72.PubMedCrossRef 15. Medical Research Council Working Party. MRC trial of treatment of mild hypertension: principal results. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985;291:97–104.CrossRef 16. Lv J, Neal B, Ehteshami P, Ninomiya VS-4718 T, Woodward M, Rodgers A, et al. Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular and renal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001293.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 17. Weber MA, Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Brunner HR, Ekman S, Hansson L, et al. Blood

pressure dependent and independent effects of antihypertensive treatment on clinical events in the VALUE trial. Lancet. 2004;363:2049–51.PubMedCrossRef 18. Czernichow S, Zanchetti A, Turnbull F, Barzi F, Ninomiya T, Kengne AP, et al. The effects of blood pressure reduction and of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events according to baseline blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertens. 2011;29:4–16.PubMedCrossRef 19. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145–53.CrossRef 20. Arima H, Chalmers J, Woodward M, Anderson RepSox in vitro C, Rodgers A, Davis S, et al. Lower target blood pressures are safe and effective for the prevention of recurrent stroke: the PROGRESS trial. J Hypertens. 2006;24:1201–8.PubMedCrossRef 21. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, Dahlof B, Elmfeldt D, Julius S, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients

with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial: HOT Study Group. Lancet. 1998;351:1755–62.PubMedCrossRef 22. Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP, Goff DC Jr, Grimm RH Jr, Cutler JA, et al. Effects of intensive 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1575–85.PubMedCrossRef 23. Hypertension Canada. Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) 2013 recommendations. Hypertension Canada. http://​www.​hypertension.​ca/​chep. Accessed 9 Aug 2013. 24. Liu LS. 2010 Chinese guidelines for the management of hypertension. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2011;39:579–615.PubMed 25. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Hypertension: clinical management of primary hypertension in adults (CG127). NICE UK. http://​publications.​nice.​org.​uk/​hypertension-cg127. Accessed 9 Aug 2013. 26. Schrier RW, Estacio RO, Esler A, Mehler P.