, 2004). Reduced secretion of IL-10 upon stimulation with Aβ1-40 was previously observed in cultures of whole blood cells (Speciale et al., 2007). The missing increase in TNFα secretion and no obvious change in CD206 expression might indicate that the activation of macrophages by Aβ peptides was not clear-cut M1 polarization but was instead a mixed state with some preference for M1 characteristics. Although helpful as a basic model, dichotomous separation of M1 and M2 macrophages
seemed to be Omipalisib solubility dmso an oversimplification. There has been increasing evidence that macrophages and microglia primarily express markers of both extremes and that each stimulus results in a specific activation state (Xue et al., 2014). Microglia in a Tg2576 AD mouse
model were shown to express genes of classical activation (TNFα and NOS2), together with genes associated with an alternative activation (CD206, ariginase I, chitinase-3-like-3) (Colton et al., 2006). This heterogeneity was also found in brain samples from AD patients (Sudduth et al., 2013). Interestingly, receptors binding Aβ-peptides such as TLR4, TLR2, RAGE or Scavenger receptors can induce pro- as well as antiinflammatory reactions of phagocytes for example by NFκB or MAPK signaling (Salminen et al., 2009, Canton et al., 2013 and Zhang et al., 2014). In line Depsipeptide with our data, Michelucci and colleagues found that the phagocytosis of Aβ1–42 oligomeres induced markers that were associated with the M1 polarization of microglia (Michelucci et al., 2009). M1 polarization markers are especially induced by those Aβ-peptide variants that accumulate in Aβ-plaques during the course of AD (Guntert et al., 2006). Most likely as a consequence, microglia in the brains of AD patients shows signs of M1 polarization (Michelucci et al., 2009, Varnum and Ikezu, 2012 and Sudduth et al., 2013). Several studies have shown, in murine AD models, that inhibiting MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit the proinflammatory M1 polarization of microglia with omega-3 fatty acids, IL10 or IL4 improved cognitive performance
and reduced AD neuropathology (Varnum and Ikezu, 2012 and Hjorth et al., 2013). The general proinflammatory M1 polarization of phagocytes is also found outside the CNS in AD patients (Varnum and Ikezu, 2012). Proinflammatory cytokines, which induce M1 polarization, seem to inhibit the clearance of Aβ by macrophages (Town et al., 2005 and Yamamoto, 2008). This activity might be explained by the observed lower phagocytosis rate of M1 compared to M2 macrophages. However, we found that the phagocytosis-inducing effect of Aβ-peptides was similar in M1 and M2 macrophages. This result indicates that opsonizing pathogens with Aβ-peptides improves phagocytosis, but a concurrent differentiation in the direction of M1 macrophages may ameliorate this effect.