In addition, the individual health care-associated pneumonia risk

In addition, the individual health care-associated pneumonia risk factors are based on limited data and are a poor predictor of patients likely to be infected with drug-resistant pathogens. Many questions remain on how to most appropriately care for this growing group of pneumonia patients. This review is an evidence-based discussion of current health care-associated pneumonia data, the individual health care-associated pneumonia risk factors, and limitations and additional considerations for the health care-associated pneumonia classification system. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journal of Medicine (2011) 124, 689-697″
“Background: Nail

BMS-754807 mouse disorders have considerable psychological impact and may limit activity by impairing functionality of both fingers and toes Objective: To evaluate the impact of nails disorders on quality of life (QoL). Methods: 1063 patients with nail disorders completed an anonymous nail-specific QoL questionnaire consisting of 24 and 16 questions, respectively, for fingernails and toenails with five possible responses to each question. A score of 1-5 AS1842856 nmr was given to each response and the final score was adjusted on a percentile scale. The subjects were classified

in groups according to nail disorders. Statistical analysis was carried out using T-test to compare the means between two groups and ANOVA analysis of variance to compare the impact of quality of life on the different types of nail disorders. Results: Comparison

between groups showed a statistically significant higher impact for trauma, onychomycosis, other infections, structure abnormalities, psoriasis, other inflammatory diseases and paronychia and a lower impact for chromonychias and tumours. QoL was statistically significantly more affected in patients having multiple nails involved, women, and in people aged 60-79 years. There was no statistically significant difference on the QoL impact between patients EGFR phosphorylation having only fingernails or only toenails involved. Conclusion: Even though published literature tends to focus on the impact of nail psoriasis and onychomycosis on QoL, other nail disorders cause similar frustration to patients. A possible explanation for this is that appearance of the nail has a more significant impact on QoL than the severity of the disorder.”
“To clarify the biochemical behavior of 2′-deoxyribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates and oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing cytosine N-oxide (C(o)) and adenine N-oxide (A(o)), we examined their base recognition ability in DNA duplex formation using melting temperature (T(m)) experiments and their substrate specificity in DNA polymerase-mediated replication. As the result, it was found that the T(m) values of modified DNA-DNA duplexes incorporating 2′-deoxyribonucleoside N-oxide derivatives significantly decreased compared with those of the unmodified duplexes.

Conclusions: Individuals with traumatic brain injury may benefit

Conclusions: Individuals with traumatic brain injury may benefit from memory group intervention focusing on internal strategy use. Study hypotheses should be retested using a randomized, controlled design, and further research is needed to better delineate influences on intervention selleck inhibitor candidacy and outcomes.”
“An effective hydrolytic degradation of PDLLA, PCL and their blends in a phosphate-buffered solution of pH 4.0 at 37 degrees C for 18 weeks was achieved, observing a considerably faster degradation of PDLLA as compared to PCL due to the hydrophobic and semicrystalline nature

of PCL matrix, able to partially prevent water diffusion into the bulk specimen.\n\nDSC and FTIR results indicated that PCL phase, in compositions rich in PCL, Angiogenesis inhibitor was very stable against hydrolysis, but the presence of PDLLA in the PDLLA/PCL blends seemed to catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of the PCL phase, probably associated to

easier diffusion of water into the PCL domains by the presence of PDLLA amorphous regions. This last trend was proportional to the content of PDLLA in the blends, excepting for the composition 64%PDLLA/36%PCL It was confirmed that PCL molecules partially delayed hydrolysis of PDLLA molecules, according to FTIR analysis, and the water diffusion prevention level was proportional to the content of PCL in the blends, except for the system 64%PDLLA/36%PCL, which presented a lower extent of degradation than neat PDLLA but higher than the blend 80% PDLLA/20%PCL. This indicated that PCL molecules did not significantly

impede hydrolysis of PDLLA molecules in this blend, possibly due to the achievement of a particular structure of the PDLLA/PCL interphase in this blend. In general, hydrolysis of PDLLA/PCL Akt signaling pathway blends was found to be a complex phenomenon depending not only on the content of both polymer phases, but also on the polymer phase crystallinity and morphology. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Dynamic activation and inactivation of gene regulatory DNA produce the expression changes that drive the differentiation of cellular lineages. Identifying regulatory regions active during developmental transitions is necessary to understand how the genome specifies complex developmental programs and how these processes are disrupted in disease. Gene regulatory dynamics are mediated by many factors, including the binding of transcription factors (TFs) and the methylation and acetylation of DNA and histones. Genome-wide maps of TF binding and DNA and histone modifications have been generated for many cellular contexts; however, given the diversity and complexity of animal development, these data cover only a small fraction of the cellular and developmental contexts of interest. Thus, there is a need for methods that use existing epigenetic and functional genomics data to analyze the thousands of contexts that remain uncharacterized.

The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consu

The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consumption rate was not affected until the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased to extremely low levels (below 1 mg/L). The MeHg and water uptake rates increased simultaneously as the dissolved oxygen level decreased, suggesting the coupling of water flux and MeHg uptake. The influence of fish swimming performance on MeHg uptake was also investigated for the first time. Rapidly swimming fish showed significantly higher uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen, confirming the coupling

relationships among respiration, water pumping, and metal uptake. Moreover, these results support that MeHg uptake is a rate-limiting process involving PD-1/PD-L1 activation energy. Our study demonstrates the importance of physiological processes in understanding mercury bioaccumulation

in fluctuating aquatic environments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2142-2147. (C) 2011 SETAC”
“H-1 spin-lattice relaxation rates in glycerol solutions of selected nitroxide radicals at temperatures between 200 K and 400 K were measured at 15 MHz and 25 MHz. The frequency and temperature conditions were chosen in such a way that the relaxation rates go through U0126 research buy their maximum values and are affected by neither the electron spin relaxation nor the electron-nitrogen nucleus hyperfine coupling, so that the focus could be put on the mechanisms of motion. By comparison with H-1 spin-lattice relaxation results for pure glycerol, it has been demonstrated that the inter-molecular electron spin-proton spin dipole-dipole NVP-BSK805 interactions are affected not only by relative translational motion of the solvent and solute molecules, but also by their rotational dynamics as the interacting spins are displaced from the molecular centers; the eccentricity effects are usually not taken into account. The H-1 relaxation data have been decomposed into translational and rotational contributions and their relative importance as a function of frequency and temperature discussed in detail.

It has been demonstrated that neglecting the rotational effects on the inter-molecular interactions leads to non-realistic conclusions regarding the translational dynamics of the paramagnetic molecules. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“Purpose of review\n\nTo critically appraise evidence on probiotic use for prevention and treatment of diarrhea in children and adults.\n\nRecent findings\n\nSeveral randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses suggested that probiotics are effective in primary and secondary prevention of gastroenteritis and its treatment. Selected Lactobacillus strains had a modest, although significant effect in primary prevention. Saccharomyces boulardii was effective in antibiotic-associated and in Clostridium difficile diarrhea.

This article describes the development of the core content and pr

This article describes the development of the core content and presents the core content in its entirety.”
“A series of 2-pyridyl-substituted pyrazoles (16a-d, 17, 18, and 28a-e) and imidazoles (22 and 23) has been synthesized and evaluated for their ALK5 inhibitory activity in cell-based luciferase reporter assays. Among them, 3-(3-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-4-(quinolin-6-yl)-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamido)benzamide

ABT-263 cell line (28c) showed 96% and 93% inhibition at 0.1 mu M in luciferase reporter assays using HaCaT cells transiently transfected with p3TP-luc reporter construct and ARE-luc reporter construct, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Feedback inhibition of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII) via Ca2+-induced MLN4924 price phosphorylation has long been hypothesized to contribute to response termination and adaptation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). To directly determine the functional significance of this feedback mechanism for olfaction in vivo, we genetically mutated serine(1076) of ACIII, the only residue responsible for Ca2+-induced phosphorylation and inhibition of ACIII (Wei et al., 1996, 1998), to alanine in mice. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that

the mutation affects neither the cilial localization nor the expression level of ACIII in OSNs. Electroolfactogram analysis showed no differences in the responses between wild-type and mutant mice to single-pulse

odorant stimulations or in several stimulation paradigms for adaptation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of ACIII on serine(1076) plays a far less important role in olfactory response attenuation than previously thought.”
“The role of dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex function, including working memory, is well acknowledged. However, relatively little is known about their role in other cognitive or emotional functions. We measured both D1 and D2 receptors in the brain using positron emission tomography in healthy subjects, STI571 chemical structure with the aim of elucidating how regional D1 and D2 receptors are differentially involved in cognitive and emotional functions beyond working memory. We found an inverted U-shaped relation between prefrontal D1 receptor availability and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance, indicating that too little or too much D1 receptor stimulation impairs working memory or set shifting. In addition, variability of D1 receptor availability in the amygdala and striatum was related to individual differences in emotional responses and decision-making processes, respectively. These observations suggest that the variability of available D1 receptors might be associated with individual differences in brain functions that require phasic dopamine release.

Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of th

Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate

warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and “broken-in” improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally RG7112 resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg(-1) – significantly

larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg(-1) and 4.5 g kg(-1), respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Studies have reported that Na,K-ATPase interacts with E-cadherin to stabilize (AJs) and regulate the expression of claudins, the main proteins present in the tight junction (TJ) in epithelial cells containing caveolae. However, the role of this ATPase in the regulation Entinostat mw of the AJ and TJ proteins in Torin 2 manufacturer colorectal cancer cells as well as the molecular events underlying this event in a caveolae-independent system remain undefined. In the present study, we used ouabain, a classic drug known to inhibit Na,K-ATPase, and Caco-2 cells, which are a well-established human colorectal cancer model that does not exhibit caveolae. We demonstrated

that ouabain treatment resulted in a reduction of the beta 1 Na,K-ATPase protein and cell redistribution of the AJ proteins E-cadherin and beta-catenin, as well as the alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase subunit. Furthermore, ouabain increased claudin-3 protein levels, impaired the TJ barrier function and increased cell viability and proliferation during the early stages of treatment. Additionally, the observed ouabain-induced events were dependent on the activation of ERK1/2 signaling; but in contrast to previous studies, this signaling cascade was caveolae-independent. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that alpha 1 and beta 1 Na,K-ATPase downregulation and ERK1/2 activation induced by ouabain are interlinked events that play an important role during cell-cell adhesion loss, which is an important step during the tumor progression of colorectal carcinomas.

Therefore, to assess the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp among bov

Therefore, to assess the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. among bovids in Hungary, a countrywide survey was initiated. In addition, fulminant deaths of four cattle, that showed clinical signs and post mortem lesions resembling acute sarcocystiosis (“Dalmeny disease”), were investigated.

Methods: During the countrywide survey individual IPI-145 concentration heart and oesophagus samples were collected at slaughterhouses from 151 beef cattle and from 15 buffalo, kept in 31 places of Hungary. Analysis for Sarcocystis spp. was carried out with conventional PCRs for the 18S rDNA gene and gel electrophoresis, followed by sequencing of 36 strongly positive samples. Mortality cases were evaluated by histological, molecular, bacteriological and virological analyses of samples from various organs. Results: Among slaughtered cattle the rate of Sarcocystis-infection was 66%. S. cruzi was identified as the most prevalent species in aurochs-like breed, and the zoonotic S. hominis Quizartinib research buy in Hungarian grey cattle. Concerning the sudden deaths of cattle, Sarcocystis-infection could not be demonstrated in organs showing haemorrhages, but S. cruzi cysts were present in the muscles. In one case “S. sinensis” was molecularly identified in the blood (indicating sarcocystaemia). Results of analyses for bacterial/viral pathogens were negative. Conclusions:

S. cruzi appears to be the most prevalent Sarcocystis sp. in cattle in Hungary, followed by the zoonotic S. hominis. However, the rate of infection with both species was shown to differ between cattle breeds. The suspected role of Sarcocystis spp. as causative agents of the fatal cases could not be confirmed.”
“Surface functionalisation is of extreme importance in assay and biosensor development because it ensures the selective capture and detection of the targets of interest.

In the present report, we compare the performance of several gold functionalisation strategies/chemistries, based on SAM self-assembly and PARP inhibition Ab conjugation, for protein and bacteria detection. The first part of the work summarises the optimisation of the various protocols considered. Their efficiency was initially evaluated in terms of reduction of biomolecule non-specific adsorption and specific detection competence impairment, using as a model-target an enzyme-labelled protein. With this purpose, the effect of several parameters, such as thiomolecule length and concentration, self-assembly time and temperature, polymer incorporation, or Ab conjugation strategy was determined. The three best performing strategies consisted of antibody (Ab) conjugation to self-assembled monolayers (SAM) containing mercaptoundecanoic acid alone, or conjugated to either long-chain hydrophilic diamines or CM-dextran.

The significant pathogen resistance of Se(IV) on C elegans might

The significant pathogen resistance of Se(IV) on C. elegans might not be attributed to the effects of Se(IV) on PA14 as Se(IV) showed no effect on bacterial quorum-sensing and virulence factors of PA14. This study showed that Se(IV) enhanced the expression of a gene pivotal for the innate immunity in C. elegans. The study found that the pathogen-resistant phenotypes contributed by Se(IV) was absent from the skn-1 mutant worms. Moreover, Se(IV) influenced the

subcellular distribution of SKN-1/Nrf in C. elegans upon PA14 infection. Furthermore, Se(IV) increased mRNA levels of SKN-1 target genes (gst-4 and gcs-1). Conclusions: This study found evidence of Se(IV) protecting C. elegans against ABT-263 P. aeruginosa PA14 infection MLN4924 supplier by exerting effects on the innate immunity of C. elegans that is likely mediated via regulation of a SKN-1-dependent signaling pathway.”
“Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a genetically heterogeneous hyperinflammatory syndrome, caused by an uncontrolled and ineffective proliferation and activation of T-lymphocytes, NK-cells, and macrophages that infiltrate multiple organs. Herein, a

patient is presented who suffered from hepatitis and atypical brain lesions. Genetic studies revealed a homozygous mutation in the STXP2 gene; and thus, the diagnosis of FHL5 was confirmed.”
“In this study, single crystals of 0.25 mol % Mn-modified lead-free (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 grown by self-flux method are investigated. The crystal shows coexistence of tetragonal and cubic phases in the perovskite structure. EDAX analysis shows a uniform Mn doping for the BNKMT single crystals. The depolarization temperature (T-d) and the temperature

of dielectric constant maximum (T-m) are found to be 175 and 310 degrees C respectively. The complex impedance plot exhibited single impedance semicircle identified over the frequency range of 200 Hz to 2 MHz. The ac conductivity results indicate STI571 cost activation energies in the range of 0.035-0.040 eV at low temperatures and 0.1-0.5 eV at high temperatures. The piezoelectric charge coefficient d33 reaches a maximum of 202 pC/N. Nonswitchable ferroelectric hysteresis showing a strong anomaly along the polarization axis with temperature are observed. Fatigue-free behavior up to 10,000 electrical cycles is observed, making the crystals favorable for high precision sensors, capacitors, and actuator applications.”
“The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) is an endangered species whose bold antipredator behaviour in comparison to related species may increase its vulnerability to hunting and predation. We used a judgement bias test to investigate whether captive peccaries that had recently experienced a trapping event made more ‘pessimistic’ decisions under ambiguity.

After 6 weeks of 0 9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity

After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing

protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT 2 R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently GSK923295 purchase to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR. Journal of Endocrinology (2011) 209,

“Objective: Perception of verticality can be perturbed after cortical stroke. However, a relationship between lesion location and pathologic perception of verticality is still a matter of debate since

previous studies revealed contradictory results. this website Thus, the aim of the current study was to test whether specific cortical lesions were associated with tilts of subjective visual vertical (SVV) and to determine the critical brain areas that cause such tilts in the case of a lesion.\n\nMethods: SVV was systematically studied PPAR inhibitor in 54 patients (22 patients with left-sided and 32 patients with right-sided lesions) with acute unilateral strokes, analyzed by modern voxel-wise lesion-behavior mapping techniques.\n\nResults: The data give evidence for an association between tilt of SVV and the insular cortex (IC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in both hemispheres. Whereas the IC seems to be the prominent structure in the left hemisphere, the IFG is most affected in the right hemisphere. Furthermore, other cortical regions such as the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the rolandic operculum as well as-subcortically-the inferior occipitofrontal fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle seem to be involved in the vestibulo-cortical network for the perception of verticality in the roll plane.\n\nConclusion: Damage to these regions might lead to an imbalance within the vestibular network of one hemisphere due to a deficit in multimodal signal processing. Neurology (R) 2012;78:728-735″
“The aim of this review is to summarize the physiological and pharmacological aspects of ghrelin.


optimum conditions for recovery of gamma-PGA from hig


optimum conditions for recovery of gamma-PGA from highly viscous culture broth were also investigated. RESULTS Enhanced gamma-PGA production (41.4 g L-1, 397 cP) was observed under optimized physiological culture parameters (no pH control, 1.5 L min(-1) aeration, and 300 rpm agitation). The cells were completely removed by diluting the viscous culture broth 7.5-, 5.0-, and 2.5-fold at pH 6.0, 4.0, and 2.0, respectively. Maximum recovery of gamma-PGA was observed when the volume ratio of cell-free culture broth to cold ethanol was 1:5 at pH 6.0. gamma-PGA with a molecular weight kDa was successfully excluded in an ultrafiltration system to develop more economical recovery of gamma-PGA from cell-free culture broth, which resulted in efficient gamma-PGA concentration with a molecular weight >100 kDa. CONCLUSION The physiological parameters affecting gamma-PGA production were optimized, Quisinostat and see more the isolation and recovery

of gamma-PGA from viscous culture broth was also evaluated. Cells were removed completely by diluting the culture broth, and precipitation of gamma-PGA using cold ethanol was better than that of other alcohols. Ultrafiltration was found to be an efficient recovery method for concentration of culture broth containing gamma-PGA. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“This study compared ultrasonic chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-coated tip (CVDentus #8.1117-1; Clorovale Diamantes Ind. e Com. Ltda Epp, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil) versus high-speed (#FG700L) and low-speed (#699) carbide burs for apicoectomy, evaluating the time required for resection and analyzing the root-end surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. Thirty extracted human premolars had the canals instrumented and obturated and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 10), according to the instrument used for root-end resection. The time required for resection of the apical 2 mm of each root was recorded. The resected apical segments were

dried, sputter coated with gold, and examined with a scanning electron microscope at X 350 magnification. GSK2879552 chemical structure A four-point (0-3) scoring system was used to evaluate the apical surface smoothness. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test and two-by-two comparisons analyses were performed using the Miller test. The significance level was set at 5%. Root-end resection with the high-speed bur was significantly faster (p < 0.05) compared with the low-speed bur and CVD tip. The carbide burs produced significantly smoother root-end surfaces than the CVD tip (p < 0.05). The low-speed bur produced the smoothest root-end surfaces, whereas the roughest and most irregular root ends (p < 0.05) were obtained with the CVD tip. However, no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between the high- and low-speed burs regarding the surface roughness of the resected root ends (p > 0.05).

Thus, we propose that P angustum uses CAI-1 signalling for adapta

Thus, we propose that P.angustum uses CAI-1 signalling for adaptation to stressful environments.”
“Neurodegenerative tauopathy characterized by hyperphosphorylation CHIR-99021 order tau has been implicated in the pathophysiology

of diabetic central nervous system (CNS) complication. Emerging evidence has suggested that hyperphosphorylation tau is caused by an imbalance of protein kinase and phosphatase activity. This review focuses on the contributions of impaired insulin signaling to diabetes-related tauopathy through disrupting the balance of tau-related protein kinases and phosphatases. In addition, we describe tau pathology as a potential target for central neuronal degeneration in diabetes mellitus.”
“Objectives: Adult population differences in relative and absolute limb size often are explained as adaptations to different climates. Less is known about other aspects of limb bone

form and their population-specific growth patterns.\n\nMethods: We study postnatal ontogenetic development of tibial and femoral form by a multivariate morphometric approach in a cross-sectional sample of South African (N = 97) and European (N = 81) modern humans from 0 to 20 years of age. Because the epiphyses ossify and fuse to the diaphysis in this time period, we separately analyze two sets of variables. Average ontogenetic trajectories are computed to compare the growth patterns of the African and the European groups.\n\nResults: For both the tibia and the femur, AG-881 research buy we could show that Africans and Europeans have a very similar average length and average shape until about 10 years of age. During adolescence Africans have a higher growth rate leading to longer adult bones with narrower epiphyses relative to the diaphysis. Despite substantial individual overlap, the average crural index is

higher in Africans Fosbretabulin purchase than in Europeans, from birth on through adulthood.\n\nConclusions: The prenatal origin of population differences in the crural index indicates a genetic determination of these differences whereas limb length and relative epiphyseal width likely are both genetically and environmentally determined. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 23: 796-804, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) at codons 129 and 219 play an important role in the susceptibility to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and might be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders. Several recent reports indicate that polymorphisms outside the coding region of PRNP modulate the expression of prion protein and are associated with sporadic CJD, although other studies failed to show an association. These reports involved the polymorphism PRNP 1368 which is located upstream from PRNP exon 1. In a case-controlled protocol, we assessed the possible association between the PRNP 1368 polymorphism and either Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD).