International travel has become increasingly common, accessible,

International travel has become increasingly common, accessible, and affordable.1,2 In 2010, there were 711 million international outbound trips worldwide, a 7% increase from 2009.3 The number of international visitors to the United States rose to a record 60 million in 2010.4 This growth has provided more opportunities for pathogens to spread beyond geographic and political borders and has increased interest in preventing morbidity and mortality among international travelers. Previous studies of United States, Canadian, Scottish, and Australian civilians who died abroad have analyzed expatriate

death reports at consulates, embassies, and government agencies.5–17 Few studies have addressed passenger mortality during commercial travel on aircraft and cruise BMN 673 cell line ships.18–25 The U.S. Department of State (DOS) Web site lists data on some U.S. citizens who die in a foreign country because of non-natural causes (eg, injuries).26 However, this Web site does not include PD0325901 mouse all deaths of U.S. military or government officials abroad, and DOS may not be notified about deaths of U.S. citizens who reside abroad. The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention’s (CDC) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ)

has statutory authority to make and enforce regulations to prevent the introduction or transmission of communicable diseases into the United States.27 The 20 CDC DGMQ quarantine stations have jurisdiction over all U.S. land border ports, seaports, and airports.28 The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations mandates that the pilot or captain of an international aircraft or ship reports illnesses

and deaths occurring aboard the vessel to the nearest CDC quarantine station.29 This reporting requirement does not apply to U.S. land borders, private physicians, hospitals, or clinics. U.S. Customs & Border Protection (CBP), domestic health departments, and others voluntarily report illnesses and deaths among international travelers to CDC quarantine stations.27 RAS p21 protein activator 1 Our objective was to analyze data on public health investigations of death in international travelers arriving in the United States, and to describe the epidemiology of travelers’ deaths reported to CDC quarantine stations. We examined data from the CDC Quarantine Activity and Reporting System (QARS), a secure online database developed by CDC in 2005 to track illnesses and deaths among inbound international travelers of any citizenship entering the United States and that are reported to CDC quarantine stations. These QARS reports include individual traveler demographic data, clinical summaries, and travel itineraries. For reported deaths, quarantine station staff also collect information on the presumptive cause of death, chronic medical conditions, and when available, the official cause of death. This investigation was approved by CDC with a non-research determination.

1, SAS Inc, Cary, NC, USA) except MCA which was conducted with X

1, SAS Inc., Cary, NC, USA) except MCA which was conducted with XLStat 2007.5 software (Addinsoft, Paris, France). Between June 2005 and May 2009, travel outside Canada was recorded in 493 cases reported in the study area. Six of these cases reported onset dates before their departure dates, three cases reported onset dates after departure and before the minimum incubation period, and 38 cases reported onset dates after their return

dates and Opaganib nmr beyond the maximum incubation period. Thus, these 47 cases were considered as DC, leaving 446 TRC for analysis. The three most frequent diseases among TRC were Campylobacter enteritis, non-typhoidal salmonellosis, and giardiasis, accounting for three quarters of the cases (Table 1). Thirty-four cases were hospitalized; the most with salmonellosis (12 cases) or paratyphoid or typhoid fever (9 cases) (Table 1). Overall, the buy BMS-777607 most common symptoms were diarrhea (77%), abdominal pain (58%), malaise (52%), fever (51%), nausea (44%), and headache (36%) with some variations between illnesses (Table 1). The onset date was available for 379 cases (85%)

with the following yearly distribution (from June to May the following year): 82 cases in 2005 to 2006, 117 cases in 2006 to 2007, 97 cases in 2007 to 2008, and 83 cases in 2008 to 2009. The total monthly distribution combined over 4 years ranged from 23 cases in October to 51 cases in August. No significant differences were found between years and months. Both onset and return dates were recorded in 353 cases (79%). The onset date for 204 of these cases (58%) occurred after their return date; and within the first 4 days for 75% of them (Figure 1). The other cases (148/353 or 42%) became ill while abroad, within the last 7 days prior to return for 60% of them (Figure 1). Among the cases who became ill abroad with known departure date (n = 143), the delay between

departure and onset dates had the following quartiles: 5 (Q1), 7 (median), and 20 days (Q3). Overall, 50.4% TRC were eltoprazine male with some variations between diseases (Table 2). Age ranged from a few months to 80 years with a right skewed distribution, the quartiles being 12 (Q1), 26 (median), and 46 (Q3). The disease-specific age distribution showed potentially different patterns; cryptosporidiosis TRC were less than 40 years old, cyclosporiasis TRC over 25 years, and hepatitis A TRC under 25 years (Table 2). Among the 446 TRC, 42 (9.4%) were classified as new immigrants as a result of adoption (6 cases), refugee status (16 cases), or immigration (20 cases). Most of them were in the 5 to 14 years (23 cases) or <5-year-age groups (8 cases). Overall, the main destinations were to Latin America/Caribbean (160 cases) and Asia (134 cases), with some variations between the diseases (Table 3). Destination for cases identified as new immigrants were Asia (23 cases), Africa (12 cases), and Latin America/Caribbean (7 cases).

PA was found to be predictive of habitual and compulsive-like eth

PA was found to be predictive of habitual and compulsive-like ethanol seeking. Additionally, innate risk status was related to epigenetic changes

in the gene encoding the requisite subunit of the 5HT3 receptor, Htr3a, as well as 5HT3A protein expression in the amygdala. We then used pharmacological tools to demonstrate that risk status determines the ability of a 5HT3 antagonist to reduce compulsive ethanol seeking. These data indicate that risk status can be identified prior to any alcohol exposure by assessment of cue reactivity, and further that this endophenotype may be predictive of response to pharmacological treatment for components of alcoholism. “

theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) can modify behavior, but effects are inconsistent and their mechanisms insufficiently understood. As coherence in resting-state networks selleck products influences human behavior, we hypothesized that cTBS may act via modulation of neural oscillation coherence. This study used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate whether behavioral effects of cTBS on visuospatial attention are associated with coherence changes in the attention network. In healthy human subjects, cTBS of the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the right frontal eye field was compared with sham stimulation. Effects on visuospatial attention were quantified with a visual exploration task, and network effects were assessed from surface EEG with inverse Adenosine triphosphate solutions and source coherence analyses. Gefitinib mouse Before stimulation, left visual exploration was linearly correlated with alpha-band coherence between the right temporo-parietal cortex and the rest of the brain. Posterior parietal cortex stimulation induced neglect-like visual exploration behavior in the majority, but not all, subjects. It reduced alpha-band coherence between the stimulation site and the rest of the brain but also enhanced it between

the contralateral left parietal cortex and the rest of the brain. The contralateral increase correlated with the induced reduction in left visual attention. The behavioral response of individual participants to cTBS could be predicted by coherence in the right temporo-parietal junction before stimulation. Behavioral effects of cTBS therefore depend on network states before stimulation and are linearly associated with changes in network interactions. In particular, cTBS modulates an interhemispheric competition in alpha-band coherence. EEG network imaging might help to optimize therapeutic cTBS in the future. “
“Helmholtz himself speculated about a role of the cochlea in the perception of musical dissonance.

It is now widely accepted that bacteriophages are the most abunda

It is now widely accepted that bacteriophages are the most abundant biological entities on Earth (1031 particles) (Brüssow & Kutter, 2005). They contribute largely to maintaining population densities and diversity of bacterial species, but also influence significantly biogeochemical and ecological processes including nutrient cycling, carbon flow and genetic transfer (Gill et al., 2003; Thurber, 2009). Classical bacteriophage taxonomy is based on their shape and size as well as their nucleic acid. Bacteriophages have been classified into 13 families; three of them (Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae) are members of the Caudovirales Selleck Dasatinib order that comprises about 96% of phages identified so far (5360

of 5568 reported to date, Ackermann, 2007). All these phages possess tail and double-stranded DNA. The 500 bacteriophage genome sequences available at present in the NCBI phage database reveal

the remarkable genetic diversity among phages, with genomes ranging from 15 up to 500 kb in size. Furthermore, bacteriophage genomes show a mosaic structure and each genome may be considered as a unique combination of modules whose size and rates of exchange selleck vary considerably among the population. Nevertheless, despite the lack of similarity at the DNA level, phages encode proteins with significant sequence similarity, reflecting a common origin (Hendrix et al., 1999). Recently, new phage classification schemes based on protein similarities have been developed for complementing the traditional classification (Lavigne et al., 2008, 2009). One of the main obstacles of phage biocontrol and phage therapy approaches is the narrow host range as a single phage may infect only specific strains. Thereby, the use of phage cocktails has been proposed (Sulakvelidze et al., 2001). However, assessment of the genetic Gefitinib diversity among a large collection of phage isolates would require effective propagation of each phage to isolate enough DNA for sequencing or analysis of DNA restriction patterns, which is time consuming and not always successful. Thus, a quick and reproducible approach would be very valuable to type new

phages whose genome sequences are unknown. Pioneering work has made use of fluorescence-labelled restriction fragment length polymorphism (fRFLP) to address bacteriophage typing (Merabishvili et al., 2007). Among other DNA-based approaches, random PCR amplifications of DNA segments using short primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence have been used to generate specific profiles or genomic fingerprints that are used to compare the genotypic diversity among, for example, bacterial isolates (Johansson et al., 1995; Guglielmotti et al., 2006; Maiti et al., 2009), or whole bacterial communities (Franklin et al., 1999; Yang et al., 2000). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR using purified DNA has also been used to assess the genetic diversity of vibriophages (Comeau et al., 2006; Shivu et al.

Carey Special Immunology Unit at University Hospitals Case Medica

Carey Special Immunology Unit at University Hospitals Case Medical Center in Cleveland, OH. All individuals provided written informed consent to participate in the HIV Metabolic Research Center trials and also to have their blood stored for use in future HIV-related metabolic research. This study was approved by the University Hospital Case Medical Center Institutional Review Board with a waiver for further informed consent. All data collected, demographics, HIV and cardiovascular characteristics, laboratory values and stored samples were obtained on the date on which FMD was performed. The primary outcome

of this study was endothelial function determined using FMD of the brachial artery. Secondary outcomes of interest included markers of inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFR-I and -II), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble

vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)], coagulation (D-dimer and fibrinogen), oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), lipoprotein levels and insulin resistance estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Endothelial function was evaluated by measuring FMD of the brachial artery with ultrasound [15] as previously described [16]. Participants were instructed to come learn more fasting, to not take anti-hypertensive medications and not to use tobacco or caffeine-containing products for 12 h before the study. All studies were performed by a single technologist (CW) using a Phillips iU22 Ultrasound and an L10-7 MHz linear array transducer (Phillips Healthcare, Bothell, WA, USA) and a 5-min occlusion time. Images were read using Brachial Artery Analyzer software (Medical Imaging Applications LLC, Coralville, IA, USA), a semi-automated, border-interfacing program. For FMD determination, brachial artery diameters before and after confirmed reactive hyperaemia were measured in triplicate and averaged from a 1-cm segment of the artery. FMD is expressed

as a percentage change from baseline brachial artery diameter to brachial artery diameter after reactive hyperaemia. Plasma from each participant Clomifene was previously stored at −70°C immediately after processing. Stored samples were then batched and tested for the markers of inflammation, coagulation and oxidative stress outlined above. IL-6, sTNFR-I and -II, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were determined by quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Interassay variability was 2.02–15.36%, 3.66–5.77%, 2.13–3.79%, 3.43–7.37% and 4.76–8.77%, respectively. hs-CRP and fibrinogen were determined using particle enhanced immunonephelometric assays on a BNII nephelometer (Siemens, Indianapolis, IN, USA). Interassay variability was 3.01–6.46% and 3.42–7.59%, respectively.

There are limitations to consider when evaluating these findings

There are limitations to consider when evaluating these findings. Data were not available at every time-point for every parameter for every patient. Despite this, no obvious bias in data collection was identified. HCV RNA testing in HCV-seropositive patients was incomplete (60%), creating the potential for misclassification. This

would result in underestimation of the size of the true effect of HCV coinfection on the lipid selleck products profile. Lower baseline weight in our HIV/HCV-coinfected participants may have influenced lipid levels. However,

weight was not found to be significantly associated with grade 3 or 4 lipid elevation or lipid-lowering drug use by logistic regression analysis after adjusting for other variables (data not shown). As a strength, our analysis of data from multiple centres builds upon the findings of several single-centre evaluations. Also, the effects of key factors that are well established to influence lipid levels (older age, male sex and antiretroviral composition) were again confirmed in this work. This, plus the results of the sensitivity analyses, increases AZD9291 in vivo our confidence in these findings as they relate to viral hepatitis coinfection. Insufficient

data on HCV genotype, quantitative HBV and HCV viral load and liver enzyme levels precluded evaluation of the influence of these variables on lipid levels. Our Demeclocycline work provides further support for a clinically relevant influence of chronic HCV infection on antiretroviral-related lipid changes following the initiation of HAART. Less lipid-lowering medication was required in those with HIV/HCV coinfection. A similar benefit with HBV coinfection was not conclusively identified. The long-term effect of this phenomenon on cardiovascular event risk should be evaluated. The OHTN Cohort Study (Principal Investigator Dr Sean B. Rourke, Ontario HIV Treatment Network, St Michael’s Hospital) is supported by the AIDS Bureau – Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. JMR, CC and Dr Sharon Walmsley are the recipients of Career Scientist Awards from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network. Dr Mona Loutfy is the recipient of salary support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

This includes the utility of laboratory investigations and manage

This includes the utility of laboratory investigations and management strategies for patients with HIV who develop acute HBV infection, as well as those with chronic HBV/HIV infection with CD4 cell counts both above and below the threshold where ART is recommended for treatment of HIV alone. For the assessment and evaluation of evidence, priority questions were agreed and outcomes were ranked (critical, important and not important)

by members of the Writing Group. Three key questions were identified by the Writing Group. For deciding on when is the optimum Buparlisib supplier time to commence ART in adults with chronic HBV/HIV infection, the following were ranked as critical outcomes: mortality, HBV disease progression (cirrhosis, HCC), response to ART (HIV viral load <50 copies/mL, CD4

cell count increase), and severe treatment-associated adverse events. For deciding on which is the anti-HBV treatment of choice when the CD4 count is selleck kinase inhibitor >500 cells/μL, the following were regarded as critical outcomes: mortality, HIV disease progression, HBV disease progression (cirrhosis, HCC), HBV DNA decline on therapy, severe treatment-associated adverse events and patient acceptability. For deciding whether FTC or 3TC should be used in combination with tenofovir, the following were regarded as critical outcomes: HBV DNA decline on therapy, cost and adverse events. Treatments were compared where data were available and differences in outcomes assessed. Details of the search strategy and literature review are contained in Appendix 2. There are approximately 240 million individuals with HBsAg-positive hepatitis B (HBV) infection globally compared to an estimated 33.1 million with HIV infection [1]. The prevalence of HBV is related to patient characteristics, with the shared global endemicity and risks for transmission of both HIV and HBV resulting in a high prevalence of coinfection. An estimated 6.9% of adults with HIV infection in the UK have evidence of HBsAg positivity, 4��8C with those of Black or other ethnicity and those with a history of injection drug use (IDU) having the highest prevalence. In some European cohorts the overall prevalence

is slightly higher. Incidence of new HBV infection in patients with HIV infection is estimated at 1.7 cases per 100 years of follow-up in the UK [2]. In the HIV non-infected, chronic HBV infection is classified into different stages, which are not necessarily sequential (see Box 6.1 and Table 6.1). These distinguish between the level of viral replication and the extent of immunopathology. Whilst the validity of such classifications is not well established in HBV/HIV infection, these distinctions are helpful in framing an understanding of coinfection. Type Description 1 Immune tolerant: HBsAg positive, HBeAg positive, high HBV DNA, normal ALT/AST, little or no necro-inflammation on liver biopsy and no or slow progression of fibrosis.

4a, dark pink) The Fh gene is not present in the fun(Z) region o

4a, dark pink). The Fh gene is not present in the fun(Z) region of xnp1 but is present in the xbp1 fun(Z) region. Similarly, the

C-terminal end of XbpH1 (residues 731–872) is 58% identical to the C-terminal region of Fe (Fig. 4a, orange box). The truncated Fe gene is not present in the fun(Z) region of xbp1 but is present in xnp1 fun(Z) region. Thus, main fiber proteins of X. nematophila and X. bovienii represent a mosaic pattern with a highly conserved N-terminal region and more variable middle and C-terminal regions. This modular organization is seen in genes encoding fibers of R-type AP24534 solubility dmso bacteriocins in Erwinia carotovora and suggests that multiple recombination and gene duplication events occurred to create divergent fiber genes in the respective genomes (Veesler & Cambillau, 2011). Similar to xnp1 and xbp1, genes encoding C-terminal fiber proteins are also present in P2 phage tail synthesis Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor loci Photorhabdus spp. The P2 phage locus (pts-Pl) of P. luminescens TT01 contains two distinct loci encoding C-terminal tail fiber fragments (Fig. 2; Gaudriault et al., 2004). Four inverted repeat sequences flank the two fiber loci, which were shown to undergo DNA inversion. Photorhabdus contains a hin invertase that may promote inversion resulting in tail fiber variation (Gaudriault

et al., 2004) while xnp1 and xbp1 lack hin genes. A similar remnant P2 prophage, pts1-Pa, containing two fiber loci and a hin gene, also exists in P. asymbiotica (Fig. 2). There are numerous differences between xnp1, xbp1, and the pts loci. While xenorhabdicin is induced by mitomycin C in X. nematophila and X. bovienii, photorhabdicin is not induced in P. luminescens that lack the dinI gene (Thaler et al., 1995; Gaudriault et al., 2004; Morales-Soto & Forst, 2011). xnp1 and xbp1 are located at 1.05 and 1.33 Mb, respectively, while the Photorhabdus loci are located near the origin of replication. The upstream and downstream genes flanking the xnp1 and xbp1 loci are highly similar. On one side are five conserved genes that include exsA and fabG while on the other side are 13 genes that include eco and genes predicted

to encode proteins involved in pyoverdine biosynthesis and propionate catabolism. The genomic environments of the pts loci check details are also perfectly syntenic, but different from the Xenorhabdus strains. Additionally, structural genes such as XnpT1 and XbpT1 tube proteins share a high level of identity (98%), while the level of identity with the Photorhabdus tube proteins is lower (83%). These findings suggest different evolutionary histories in Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus strains for the acquisition of this phage cluster but a possible ancestral acquisition within each genus. Here, we show that X. bovienii strains isolated from different steinernematid nematodes produce inducible xenorhabdicin albeit at different levels. Thus, the role that xenorhabdicin plays in interspecies competition (Sicard et al.

002; Fig 1b) In addition – and as previously demonstrated [6, 2

002; Fig. 1b). In addition – and as previously demonstrated [6, 23] – the

pretreatment set-point viral load correlated significantly with the post-STI viral load (P < 0.001). The duration of STI and viral load at pretreatment set point were therefore included in multivariable analyses. selleck chemical Eighty-nine patients (68%) carried at least one HLA-B Bw4 allele. Bw4 alleles can be further separated into those carrying isoleucine or threonine at position 80 (Bw4-80Ile and Bw4-80Thr, respectively). Functionally, alleles with isoleucine act as strong ligands, whereas alleles carrying a threonine act as weak ligands of KIR3DL1 [24]. The former were detected in 52 patients (40%) and the latter in 37 patients (28%), whereas 41 patients carried no Bw4 alleles (32%). Patients not carrying a Bw4 allele showed a median post-STI viral load of 3.24 log copies/ml (IQR 2.21–4.29 log copies/ml), whereas the median post-STI viral load was 2.39 log copies/ml (IQR 0–3.62 log copies/ml) in Bw4-positive patients (P = 0.003; Fig. 2a). No difference was found between carriers of 80Thr and 80Ile subgroups of the Bw4 (median increase 2.40 and 2.39 log copies/ml, respectively; P = 0.66; Fig. 2b). We next analysed the impact of allelic diversity within the KIR3DL1 locus in Bw4-positive patients. Of 125 KIR3DL1-positive patients, 84 tested selleck kinase inhibitor positive for at least one Bw4

antigen. We found no difference between patients carrying KIR3DL1 alleles with high (*h/*x) and low (*l/*l) surface expression (median increase 2.91 and 2.71 log copies/ml, respectively; P = 0.57; Fig. 2c). Equally, the presence of the KIR3DL1*004 allele Benzatropine – which in conjunction with Bw4 has been shown to delay the progression to AIDS – had no significant impact on post-STI viral loads (median increase 2.65 vs. 2.91 log copies/ml, respectively; P = 0.58; Fig. 2d). The activating receptor KIR3DS1 – which segregates as an allele of KIR3DL1 – was contained in 45 patients’ genotypes (35%), of which 13 also carried Bw4Ile. The presence of KIR3DS1 with Bw4Ile has been shown to delay progression

to AIDS [25]. In our setting, we found no difference in the rise in viral load between KIR3DS1+/Bw4-80Ile+ patients (median increase 2.65 log copies/ml) and patients who did not carry either KIR3DS1 or Bw4-80Ile or both (median increase 2.91 log copies/ml; P = 0.81; Fig. 2e). Finally, we analysed the impact of the SNPs in HCP5 and in HLA-C −35. Nine patients (7%) carried one G allele in the HCP5 locus, and all remaining patients were homozygous for the wild-type T-allele. The median viral load was lower in patients with HCP5-G (median 2.76 log copies/ml) compared with HCP5-TT homozygous patients (median 2.85 log copies/ml). This difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.90; Fig. 2f). At the HLA-C −35 locus, 79 patients (61%) were homozygous for the major T-allele and seven patients (5%) were homozygous carriers of the protective C allele, whereas the remaining 44 patients (34%) carried one copy of each allele.

cerevisiae and Aspergillus fumigatus) revealed the presence of tw

cerevisiae and Aspergillus fumigatus) revealed the presence of two distinct regions. The one

located at the 5′- region showed high homology with the Spe genes, whereas the one present at the 3′-region was homologous to the Sdh genes; both were linked through a region of approximately 60 nucleotides without RO4929097 mouse homology (not shown). As expected, the alignment of amino acid sequences encoded by these genes showed the same pattern of homology, demonstrating the high preservation of the gene in the Basidiomycota (not shown). With these data we designed degenerate primers to be used for PCR amplification of the chimeric genes. The forward primer was selected at the 3′-end of the region with homology to Spe, and the reverse primer was designed from the homologous region

at the 5′-end of the Sdh, in such a way that the amplification fragment covered the nonhomologous region that separates both coding regions (see Fig. 1a). Using the PCR conditions described above and AZD2014 the designed degenerate primers, it was possible to amplify DNA fragments of the predicted size from genomic DNA of all the Basidiomycota species tested (see Materials and methods), whose genomes have been sequenced or not, that represented the three subphyla from Basidiomycota. The size of the fragments (around 1300 bp) coincided with the expected values. On the other hand, and as expected, no such amplification occurred when DNA from Ascomycota or Zygomycota species was used as template (Fig. 1b). The PCR products corresponding to the Basidiomycota species analyzed in this work were sequenced. Alignment of the encoded sequences revealed their high conservation (Fig. 2). Additionally, the encoded sequences

of the amplified fragments from Basidiomycota species whose genomes had been previously sequenced were compared with those existing in their corresponding data banks. The results obtained confirmed the fidelity of the PCR amplification Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease (Table 1). The differences observed can be explained by the fact that different isolates were used in these studies. The sequences of the fragments were deposited in GenBank, with the following accession numbers: Ustilago cynodontis, FN646089; Tilletia foetida, FN646090; Bjerkandera adusta, FN646091; Rhizoctonia solani, FN822770; Schizophyllum commune, FN822771; Ustilago hordei, FN822772; Ustilago maydis, FN822773; Coprinus cinerea, FN822774; Pleurotus ostreatus, FN822775; Ganoderma lucidum, FN822776; Agaricus bisporus, FN827330; and Ganoderma sp., FN827329. The sequences of the regions corresponding to the fragments amplified by PCR from the Spe-Sdh genes obtained in this study, and those reported in the databases, were used for the construction of a phylogenetic tree. The results obtained showed the phylogenetic relationship (Fig.