The inclusion and testing of samples is shown in Fig. 1. Of the 626 older children and adults presenting with diarrhea, 366 (58.5%) were male and 260 (41.2%) were females and 343 were in-patients while 283 attended the out-patient clinics. The median (range) age was 42 (13–78), with an interquartile
range (IQR) of 29–56. Sixty-three (10%) were between 13 and 20 years of age, 230 (36.7%) were in the 21 MG-132 purchase and 40 age group, 236 (37.7%) were 41 and 60 years and 97 (15.5%) were over 60 years. Of the 626 stool samples screened, 52 (8.4%) were positive for rotavirus by the Rotaclone antigen detection assay. Nine (17.3%) of the 52 stool samples that were positive for rotavirus also grew bacterial pathogens, Salmonella spp. (5), Shigella spp. (3), Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas spp. (1). Twenty-three (45.1%) of 51 samples sufficient for further testing were amplified in the VP7 or VP4 PCRs, and complete genotypes obtained for 16/23 (69.6%) samples. The most XL184 chemical structure common genotype was G1P (n = 11, 47.8%). There was one strain each of G1P and G1P and two strains of G9P. One sample had mixed genotypes of G2 and G9P. Complete genotyping could not be determined for 7 samples ( Fig. 2). When the majority (28/51) of samples failed to genotype, the samples were
re-tested by the Rotaclone ELISA and 14 previously positive samples were negative. Because of this lack of specificity, an in-house ELISA known to be more specific and the VP6 PCR were employed to confirm rotavirus specificity. Thirteen untyped samples that were positive by Rotaclone on repeat testing were negative by the in-house Oxymatrine ELISA. The results of the in-house ELISA were confirmed by the VP6 PCR which gave100% concordant results, with 24 positive samples. One sample positive by the in-house ELISA and for VP6 PCR was untypable by both the G and P typing PCRs (Fig. 2). Of the samples
that were positive for rotavirus, 66.6% (16/24) were from those who were admitted in the hospital for diarrhea while 33.33% (8/24) were from out patients. The proportions of samples that were false positive were similar in in-patients and out-patients and in younger and older individuals. This pilot study aimed at identifying whether group A rotaviruses caused Modulators disease in a south Indian population, given the very high rates of antibody prevalence  in the region. Rotavirus was detected by a commercial ELISA in 52 (8.3%) samples from patients with diarrhea older than 12 years in a tertiary care center in the south of India, but was finally confirmed in 24 (3.8%) of samples. Over 50% of initially positive tests could not be confirmed by a more specific in-house ELISA or VP6 PCR, but assuming no positive samples were missed by the Rotaclone assay, this translates to a specificity of 96% for the Rotaclone assay.