The inclusion and testing of samples is shown in Fig 1 Of the 6

The inclusion and testing of samples is shown in Fig. 1. Of the 626 older children and adults presenting with diarrhea, 366 (58.5%) were male and 260 (41.2%) were females and 343 were in-patients while 283 attended the out-patient clinics. The median (range) age was 42 (13–78), with an interquartile

range (IQR) of 29–56. Sixty-three (10%) were between 13 and 20 years of age, 230 (36.7%) were in the 21 MG-132 purchase and 40 age group, 236 (37.7%) were 41 and 60 years and 97 (15.5%) were over 60 years. Of the 626 stool samples screened, 52 (8.4%) were positive for rotavirus by the Rotaclone antigen detection assay. Nine (17.3%) of the 52 stool samples that were positive for rotavirus also grew bacterial pathogens, Salmonella spp. (5), Shigella spp. (3), Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas spp. (1). Twenty-three (45.1%) of 51 samples sufficient for further testing were amplified in the VP7 or VP4 PCRs, and complete genotypes obtained for 16/23 (69.6%) samples. The most XL184 chemical structure common genotype was G1P[8] (n = 11, 47.8%). There was one strain each of G1P[6] and G1P[4] and two strains of G9P[4]. One sample had mixed genotypes of G2 and G9P[4]. Complete genotyping could not be determined for 7 samples ( Fig. 2). When the majority (28/51) of samples failed to genotype, the samples were

re-tested by the Rotaclone ELISA and 14 previously positive samples were negative. Because of this lack of specificity, an in-house ELISA known to be more specific and the VP6 PCR were employed to confirm rotavirus specificity. Thirteen untyped samples that were positive by Rotaclone on repeat testing were negative by the in-house Oxymatrine ELISA. The results of the in-house ELISA were confirmed by the VP6 PCR which gave100% concordant results, with 24 positive samples. One sample positive by the in-house ELISA and for VP6 PCR was untypable by both the G and P typing PCRs (Fig. 2). Of the samples

that were positive for rotavirus, 66.6% (16/24) were from those who were admitted in the hospital for diarrhea while 33.33% (8/24) were from out patients. The proportions of samples that were false positive were similar in in-patients and out-patients and in younger and older individuals. This pilot study aimed at identifying whether group A rotaviruses caused Modulators disease in a south Indian population, given the very high rates of antibody prevalence [13] in the region. Rotavirus was detected by a commercial ELISA in 52 (8.3%) samples from patients with diarrhea older than 12 years in a tertiary care center in the south of India, but was finally confirmed in 24 (3.8%) of samples. Over 50% of initially positive tests could not be confirmed by a more specific in-house ELISA or VP6 PCR, but assuming no positive samples were missed by the Rotaclone assay, this translates to a specificity of 96% for the Rotaclone assay.

Monoaminergic antidepressants and other treatments, such as envir

Monoaminergic antidepressants and other treatments, such as environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy, have been shown to be beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour in a neurogenesis-dependant

manner. Conversely, some other antidepressants do not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis, suggesting that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be an intermediate process and might not necessarily be the final process governing antidepressant-induced behavioural recovery from stress. However, it is also important to note that chronic stress and some antidepressant treatments exert their effects on adult neurogenesis, specifically in the vHi, the area of the hippocampus which plays a primary role in the stress response and emotionality, and a recent study demonstrated that the anxiolytic effects of fluoxetine are Selleck Idelalisib dependent upon

neurogenesis in this brain area (Wu and Hen, 2014). Thus, alterations in adult hippocampal neurogenesis specifically in the vHi rather than the dHi might also play a key role in recovery from stress-related disorders (Tanti et al., 2012 and O’Leary and Cryan, 2014). Given that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in a host of fundamental emotional and cognitive processes, ranging from pattern separation (Sahay et al., 2011 and Clelland et al., 2009) to forgetting (Frankland et al., 2013), it will be important Vorinostat purchase to Libraries identify and understand the mechanism of how newly-born neurons specifically contribute not only to the response and recovery from stress, but also to distinct cognitive functions, some of which might also be disrupted in stress-related psychiatric disorders

(Kheirbek et al., 2012). This may guide future approaches for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. BRL is supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development-CNPq of Brazil (Grant number 249007/2013-4). JFC is supported Farnesyltransferase in part by Science Foundation Ireland in the form of a centre grant (Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre) under (Grant number SFI/12/RC/2273) and by the Health Research Board of Ireland(Grant number HRA_POR/2012/32). JFC received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (Grant number FP7/2007-2013 under Grant Agreement no. 278948 (TACTICS-Translational Adolescent and Childhood Therapeutic Interventions in Compulsive Syndrome)). “
“A strong gradient in health parallels the socioeconomic gradient in human society. Health disparities across social strata grow larger each year, and there have been a great deal of clinical and epidemiological research directed toward understanding the causes of this growing inequality. Important contributors that have been identified include social determinants such as health-related features of neighborhoods (e.g. walkability, recreational areas, accessibility to healthy food), socioeconomic factors (e.g.

Treadmill training increased walking distance 40 m (95% CI 24 to

Treadmill training increased walking distance 40 m (95% CI 24 to 55) more than no intervention/non-walking intervention ( Figure 6b, see Figure 7b on the eAddenda for the detailed forest plot). The immediate effect of treadmill training versus overground on walking distance was examined by pooling data from two studies (Langhammer and Stanghelle 2010, Olawale et al 2011) involving 79 participants. There was no statistical difference in walking distance between treadmill training and overground training (MD −6 m, 95% CI −45 to 33) (Figure PF 01367338 8, see Figure 9 on the eAddenda for the detailed forest plot). No studies measured the effect of treadmill training versus

overground walking on walking distance beyond the intervention period. This review provides evidence that treadmill training without body weight support is effective at improving walking in people who are ambulatory

after stroke. Furthermore, the benefits appear to be maintained beyond the intervention period. inhibitors However, whether treadmill training is more beneficial than overground training is not known. Meta-analysis indicated that treadmill training produced benefits in terms of both walking speed and distance. Treadmill training produced 0.14 m/s faster walking and 40 m greater distance than no intervention/non-walking intervention immediately after intervention and these benefits were maintained beyond Alectinib supplier the intervention period. This effect is likely to be a conservative estimate of the effect of treadmill training, since some of the to non-walking interventions given to the control group (such as strengthening) may have had some effect on walking. Importantly, these benefits appear to be clinically meaningful. For example, Tilson et al (2010) demonstrated that a between-group difference in walking speed after stroke

of 0.16 m/s resulted in a 1-point improvement in the modified Rankin scale. Furthermore, there is no indication that the effect of treadmill training is different when carried out with subacute stroke undergoing hospitalbased rehabilitation or with chronic stroke after discharge from formal rehabilitation. This may be because the length and frequency of treadmill training sessions delivered was similar across studies (mean length 30 min, SD 4; mean frequency 4/wk, SD 1) despite the variation in duration of training program (mean duration 9 wk, SD 7). There are insufficient data to provide evidence as to whether treadmill training is better than overground training. Only three studies (Pohl et al 2002, Langhammer and Stanghelle 2010, Olawale et al 2011) investigating this question were found. Meta-analysis indicates no significant difference between treadmill training and overground training for both walking speed and distance.

The stepwise entry of variables in the model and continuation in

The stepwise entry of variables in the model and continuation in the final model were determined by their relevance and Dasatinib molecular weight statistical significance (p < 0.20 and p < 0.05, respectively). This study was approved by the Ethics in Research

Committees of the National School of Public Health-Fiocruz (document 236A/03 CEP-FIOCRUZ), and the Ministry of Health of the Federal District (Document SES-DF CEP-069/2005) authorized by ANVISA and registered in the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN 72367932). From a total of 1943 children, 115 in one health center were disregarded in the analysis Libraries because of inconsistencies in identification numbers of blood samples. All the remaining 1828 children received the MMR (Bio-Manguinhos/GSK, 48.5%, Merck, 35.6%, not recorded, 15.9%) and 59 (3.2%) did not receive yellow fever vaccine in the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, PI3 kinase pathway we included the 1769 children who received yellow fever vaccine, and were thus randomly assigned to one type of YFV. Among those, 22 (1.2%) did not return for blood sampling after vaccination. Of those who returned, 43 (2.5%), 54 (3.1%), 56 (3.2%) and 24 (1.4%) did not have post-vaccination

serological status for rubella, measles, mumps and yellow fever, respectively (Fig. 1). The total loss was 13.5% and included subjects who did not return for vaccination or blood collection, or whose specimens were lost or were insufficient to perform the serological tests. These losses were not selective regarding study groups. Six children assigned to vaccination with an interval of 30 days received the vaccines simultaneously, whereas in 5 children the opposite occurred. The 59 volunteers Cell press lost between the two randomization procedures were similar to those volunteers randomized to the vaccine against yellow fever, according to gender, age weight, and the proportion seropositive for rubella and yellow fever (Table 1). The base-line characteristics were well-balanced across comparison groups (Table 1). The proportion of children seropositive

to yellow fever before vaccination was substantially higher than for measles, mumps and rubella. The proportion of seroconversion and magnitude of immune response (GMT and distribution of postvaccination antibody titers) for rubella were substantially higher in the group in which YFV and MMR were given 30 days apart, compared to those vaccinated simultaneously (p < 0.001, Table 2 and Fig. 2). In contrast, the groups defined by the types of yellow fever vaccines showed no significant differences in immune response (p > 0.5, Table 2 and Fig. 2). In the logistic model for seroconversion only the interval between vaccines showed a statistically significant association (OR = 3.80, 95% CI: 2.39–6.05).

26 Because of the pixel size of 2 μm3, uncertainty remains about

26 Because of the pixel size of 2 μm3, uncertainty remains about the presence

of nano-sized amorphous drug particles. The fusion method is sometimes referred to as the melt method, which is correct only when the starting materials are crystalline. Melting method was first used to prepare simple eutectic mixtures by Sekiguchi and Obi Leuner and Dressman (2000) used to describe melting method as hot melt method. This method consists of melting the drug within the carrier followed by cooling and pulverization of the obtained product. The process has got some limitations like, use of high temperature and chance of degradation of drug during melting, incomplete miscibility between drug and carrier.27 The melting or fusion method is the preparation STI571 of physical Modulators mixture of a drug and a water-soluble carrier and heating it directly until it melted. The melted mixture is then solidified rapidly in an ice-bath under vigorous stirring. The final solid mass is crushed, pulverized and sieved. Appropriately this has undergone many modifications in pouring the homogenous melt in the form of a thin layer onto a ferrite plate or a stainless steel plate and cooled by flowing air or water on the opposite side of the plate. In addition, a super-saturation of a solute or drug in a system can

often be obtained by quenching the melt rapidly from a high temperature.28 Under Selleckchem Erlotinib such conditions, the solute molecule is arrested in the solvent matrix by the instantaneous solidification process. The quenching technique gives a much finer dispersion of crystallites when used for simple eutectic mixtures. The drugs were ball milled in a mixer mill (Glen Creston Ltd., Loughborough, UK) using a 25 mL

chamber for 120 min at 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl 2% w/v with 2–12 mm diameter and 6–7 mm diameter stainless steel ball bearings.29 The samples were milled at 17.5/s.1. Solvent evaporation method is a simple way to produce amorphous solid dispersions where the drug and carrier is solubilized in a volatile solvent.30 The first step in the solvent method is the preparation of a solution containing both matrix material and drug. The second step involves the removal of solvent(s) resulting in formation of a solid dispersion.30 Mixing at the molecular level is preferred, because this leads to optimal dissolution properties. Using the solvent method, the pharmaceutical engineer faces two challenges.31 The first challenge is to mix both drug and matrix in one solution, which is difficult when they differ significantly in polarity. To minimize the drug particle size in the solid dispersion, the drug and matrix have to be dispersed in the solvent as fine as possible preferably drug and matrix material are in the dissolved state in one solution. The second challenge in the solvent method is to prevent phase separation, e.g. crystallization of either drug or matrix, during removal of the solvent(s).

Furthermore, lesion of these structures blocks the effects of IS

Furthermore, lesion of these structures blocks the effects of IS (Amat et al., 2001 and Hammack et al., 2004). However, contrary to the expectation that ES would not then activate these structures and inputs to the DRN, or do so to a lessor degree than does IS, ES produced the same level of activation and input

(Amat et al., 2001). For example, in an extensive series of studies examining LC activation, McDevitt et al. (2009) found that both IS and ES intensely activate the LC as assessed by c-fos mRNA, Fos protein, and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA, but to exactly the same degree. Before leaving the DRN and 5-HT, it should be noted that intense DRN activation is not restricted to IS as a stressor. For example, social defeat (which is arguably uncontrollable) does so as well Selleck LY2157299 (Amat et al., 2010). However, all stressors do not do so, and it has been suggested that stressors have to be prolonged and intense (Takase et al., 2005). In addition, IS and other uncontrollable stressors certainly do more than activate

the DRN, and produce outcomes that are not mediated by the DRN. For example, IS conditions fear to cues that are present, and this is mediated by the standard amygdala circuitry (Maier et al., 1993). Finally, there has recently been a large amount of research devoted to a more general understanding of the role of the DRN in stress-related phenomena than the focus on controllability phenomena that is the subject of this review (Valentino et al., 2010). The research reviewed above indicates that uncontrollable selleck chemicals llc stressor exposure differentially activates DRN 5-HT neurons relative to controllable stressors, but that both types of stressors appear to provide equivalent excitatory input to the DRN. This juxtaposition of findings leaves only one obvious possibility, namely, that controllable stressors lead those to an input to the DRN that differentially inhibits 5-HT activity.

That is, both ES and IS induce inputs to the DRN that activate the DRN, but only ES produces an input that inhibits DRN 5-HT. Under this view control does not produce its protective effects passively by lacking something that uncontrollability produces as in the original view, but instead does so actively. If the detection/processing of control were to lead to the Libraries inhibition of DRN 5-HT neuronal activity, the cortex would be an obvious source. Interestingly, the DRN receives virtually all of its cortical input from the prelimbic (PL) region of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (Peyron et al., 1998 and Vertes, 2004). Importantly, electrical stimulation in this region leads to the inhibition of DRN 5-HT neuronal firing (Hajos et al., 1998). This inhibition occurs because glutamatergic pyramidal output neurons from the PL to the DRN synapse preferentially within the DRN on GABAergic interneurons that in turn inhibit 5-HT cells (Jankowski and Sesack, 2004).

5–99 7 mg) and measured on an FTIR spectrometer (VECTOR 22, Bruke

5–99.7 mg) and measured on an FTIR spectrometer (VECTOR 22, Bruker, USA) with a 4 cm− 1 resolution and 100 scans between wavenumbers of 4000 and 400 cm− 1 (Chun et al., 2004). To analyze C forms from the FTIR spectra, we subtracted the background of the KBr window, automatically corrected the baseline and Libraries smoothed the spectra, identified the peaks, and

normalized the spectra on KPT-330 ic50 a reduced portion of the wavenumbers (4000–500 cm− 1). Kubiena boxes were used to collect undisturbed blocks of unamended and amended soils during the incubation period to make thin sections. After air drying, vertically-oriented thin sections measuring 2.5 × 5 cm and 30 μm thick were prepared by Spectrum Petrographics (Winston, OR, USA). The thin sections were used to observe soil structures under a polarized microscope (AFX-II Type, Nikon Precision Instruments, Belmont, CA). The biochar sample was viewed by optical microscopy with reflected MAPK inhibitor light and then scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Hitachi, S-3000N, Japan) to identify its micro-scale structure. A back-scattered electron image representing the mean atomic abundance in a back-and-white image was observed from the surface of the samples coated by Au. The mineral phases of the sample were identified using SEM and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) (Horiba, EMAX-ENERGY EX-200, Japan), with 15 kV and 180 pA for the acceleration voltage and beam current, respectively, in a vacuum of 25 Pa with

an Au coating. Analyzed points were selected using back-scattered electron images to avoid damaging samples. The soil erosion experiment was conducted using simulated rainfall equipment with 9.5 m in height (drop diameter is 2.5 mm and terminal velocity is 8.5 m s− 1), and all processes followed the ASTM-D7101 standard (America Standard Testing Materials, ASTM). Soil erosion processes are widely performed in the

field and laboratory using rainfall simulators and these simulations play an important role in controlling repeatable conditions and adjusting the required rainfall intensity (Tejada and Gonzalez, 2007). The erosion experiment simulated next a rainfall intensity of 80 mm h− 1 and a 10% slope gradient because this is the average slope gradient in the field. The rainfall experiment for all the treatment was in triplicate. The triplicate data were subjected to mean separation analysis using the 1-way ANOVA test at a significance of p = 0.05. The differences between mean values were identified using Duncan’s test. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated to determine how the soil properties are related. Table 1 lists the properties of the soil and the biochar. The soil was very acidic (pH < 4.0) and had low levels of total organic carbon (TOC) (4.37%) and soil organic carbon (SOC) (< 2.0%), which is typical for soils in humid tropical regions. A low CEC might be the result of low organic matter content and low clay activity in the soil.

We collapsed the data across the three speeds and performed regre

We collapsed the data across the three speeds and performed regression of firing selleckchem rate (or normalized firing rate) versus each variable. A regression slope and correlation coefficient of one for any particular

variable would indicate that the neuron encodes the value of that variable unambiguously. For the variable of elapsed time, we obtained an average regression slope of 0.90 and correlation coefficient of 0.79 in both monkeys. Slopes and correlations were somewhat smaller for distance (slope = 0.62 and 0.61; r = 0.75 and 0.71) and for speed (slope = 0.67 and 0.66; r = 0.65 and 0.62). Thus, the neural responses as a group could encode any of the three variables but were best related to elapsed time. For a learned movement to be effective, it not only needs to have the correct trajectory but must also

be produced at the desired time. We have provided evidence that the FEFSEM is involved in regulating the timing of learned pursuit eye movements. We show that when driven by a temporally precise instructive stimulus, learned changes in firing rate are preferentially expressed in neurons that respond best at the time of the instructive stimulus SAHA HDAC nmr during prelearning step-ramp pursuit. Our results suggest that the FEFSEM may be a site where the timing of sensory errors is processed during learning and integrated into appropriate, learned motor commands. We provide several lines of evidence that the learned responses of neurons in

the FEFSEM are related selectively to learning and are not secondary to the altered eye movement. Comparing the changes in firing rate resulting from two different instruction times showed that the magnitude of the learned neural response depended more Sodium butyrate on the temporal properties of the instructive stimulus than on the size of the learned eye movement. Our analysis of the learned changes in eye velocity and firing rate across single trials revealed a dissociation between the magnitudes of the behavioral and neural responses. Finally, for the same neuron, the change in firing rate associated with a visually-driven eye velocity was often quite different from the change in firing rate produced by learning, even though the visually-evoked eye velocity mimicked the learned eye velocity closely.

These evoked currents were blocked by NBQX (12 9 ± 4 5% of contro

These evoked currents were blocked by NBQX (12.9 ± 4.5% of control, n = 5) but had unusual properties including slow kinetics (10%–90% rise time 6.7 ± 0.9 ms, decay τ 36.3 ± 1.1 ms, n = 19), virtually no trial-to-trial amplitude variability (coefficient of variation 0.05 ± 0.01, n = 19), and little sensitivity to membrane potential (7.5 ± 2.7% reduction in amplitude from −80 mV to −40 mV, n = 7) (Figure S1 available

online). These responses were also observed in cells in which the primary apical dendrite was severed (n = 3). Although we cannot rule out the possibility that these Selleckchem Navitoclax small responses reflect synaptic contacts that only occur onto electrotonically remote regions of lateral dendrites or axons, they could also reflect glutamate spillover from cortical fibers onto distal processes, intracellular detection of local field potentials, or gap junctional coupling with cells receiving

direct synaptic input. Regardless of their exact origin, these small currents did not have an obvious effect on mitral cell excitability since they caused only weak membrane depolarization (0.3 ± 0.1 mV at rest, n = 9) and never elicited APs. Granule cells are thought to be the major target of direct excitation from cortical feedback projections (Strowbridge, 2009). Indeed, brief light GSK1120212 ic50 flashes evoked EPSCs in GCs (Figure 3A1) with fast kinetics (10%–90% rise time: 0.76 ± 0.06 ms, decay τ: 1.49 ± 0.08 ms, amplitude range:13 to 587 pA, n = 20) and little jitter in their onset times (SD = 0.23 ± 0.02 ms, n = 20). Light-evoked EPSCs in GCs were abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 μM, n = 6) but were partially recovered following subsequent application of the K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, MTMR9 1 mM, n = 5; Figure 3A2). Consistent with previous studies (Petreanu et al., 2009), the synaptic response elicited in the presence of TTX and 4-AP indicates that we could trigger transmission via direct ChR2-mediated depolarization of boutons, however, the responses we observe under normal conditions reflect AP-mediated transmitter release from cortical fibers. Membrane depolarization (Vm = +40 mV)

in the presence of picrotoxin (100 μM) revealed a slow NMDAR component to cortically-driven EPSCs that was abolished by APV (n = 4), while the fast EPSCs were blocked by NBQX (n = 7, Figure 3A3). The current-voltage relationship of the isolated AMPAR response was linear (n = 5; Figure 3A4), indicating that AMPARs at cortical synapses on GCs are Ca2+-impermeable (Hollmann and Heinemann, 1994). We think it likely that GCs are a major source of cortically-evoked disynaptic inhibition onto mitral cells. Cell-attached recordings of GCs revealed that cortical input is sufficient to drive GCs to spike threshold (n = 5; Figure 3B1). Furthermore, simultaneous whole-cell recordings indicated that the onset of evoked mitral cell IPSCs followed EPSCs in GCs with a disynaptic latency (3.2 ± 0.4 ms, n = 7; Figure 3B2).

Unfortunately, applicability and value of such endpoints is often

Unfortunately, applicability and value of such endpoints is oftentimes only evident after the trial is completed and many millions of dollars have been spent, highlighting the importance of a thorough and realistic reflection on endpoint selection. Therapeutic approaches using NSCs and other stem cell products

Venetoclax mouse for the treatment of CNS injury and disease fall into two broad categories, summarized in Figure 4: (1) regenerative/cell replacement to promote host tissue repair mechanisms and/or replace missing or damaged cells, and (2) therapeutic delivery to provide therapeutic macromolecules (enzymes, cytokines, neurotrophins, drugs, etc.) for neuroprotection, drug therapy, and/or stimulation of repair. A third clinically relevant approach is drug discovery via stem cell-based disease models. In this section we focus on regulatory approved stem cell-based CNS clinical trials, summarized in Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3, and include some preclinical studies that are considered close to IND. Stem cell therapies for neural transplantation and repair aim to replace damaged cells and/or promote host tissue local neural repair mechanisms, including neurogenesis, gliogenesis, and angiogenesis (see Table 1). Human NSCs derived from pluripotent

cells or extracted from CNS tissue can be used as undifferentiated cells, relying on the host signals to stimulate their proliferation and differentiation, or their lineage descendents can selleck compound be utilized, such as GRPs. The donor cells are typically delivered via stereotactic injection into the affected regions. An alternate means of cell replacement being developed is the recruitment of endogenous

neural progenitor cells from active adult germinal zones or relatively dormant progenitors elsewhere in below the CNS, as demonstrated in promising animal models of PD (Androutsellis-Theotokis et al., 2010). In 2010, two trials were authorized for the use of neural cells to treat SCI. Geron Corporation (Geron) received FDA clearance to initiate a phase I trial using hESC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs), GRNOPC1, in subacute thoracic SCI. This landmark study represents the first huESC-derived product for clinical testing. StemCells, Inc. (StemCells) received regulatory authorization in Switzerland (SwissMedic) to conduct a phase I/II trial in chronic thoracic SCI using fetal-derived NSCs (HuCNS-SC). There are important similarities and differences in the design of each of these studies. Geron’s GRNOPC1 contains hESC-derived OPCs that have demonstrated remyelinating and nerve-growth-stimulating properties leading to restoration of locomotor function in a rat model of acute contusion SCI (Keirstead et al., 2005). StemCells reported similar findings in a mouse model of spinal cord contusion injury using HuCNS-SC (Cummings et al., 2005) and demonstrated their efficacy beyond the acute injury stage (Salazar et al., 2010).