001) Examination of sequencing

data from PCR products ta

001). Examination of sequencing

data from PCR products taken from this cohort suggests a dichotomy between the Helicobacter species identified in each group (unpublished data). Attempts to culture these organisms from adult colonic tissue have proved negative to date. We have followed the adult studies presented Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor above with a retrospective examination of paediatric IBD, utilizing FISH alone to examine archival colonic tissue held in pathology storage. This small study examined distal colonic tissue from the rectum or sigmoid of 23 patients with CD, 23 with UC and 15 controls (Hansen et al., 2009). The controls had undergone colonoscopy for a variety of reasons, but their assessment demonstrated a macroscopically and microscopically normal colon. Non-pylori check details Helicobacter were demonstrated

in 83% of CD patients, 87% of UC patients and 40% of controls. The IBD groups were both significantly higher in prevalence than the control cohort (P=0.013 and 0.004, respectively). The organisms seen appeared to be present within the remnants of the mucosal layer (see Fig. 2), which fits with the observations of Zhang et al. (2006). In one case, a large cloud of organisms was visualized adjacent to the colonic epithelial surface (Fig. 3). Unfortunately, the methodology in use for this study has prevented the identification of these organisms to the species level. Work is now underway to recruit children throughout Scotland during their first presentation with IBD in order to identify these organisms to the species level and culture them for use in further experiments. Keenan et al. (2008) investigated colonic mucosal DNA for Helicobacter from 100 patients in New Zealand (of whom 14 had IBD, 18 had adenomatous RVX-208 polyps, 34 had no macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities, and the remaining 34 can be presumed to have other colonic pathologies including lipoma and diverticulosis,

but they are not described in detail). Biopsies were taken from up to four distinct sites (terminal ileum, caecum, transverse colon, recto-sigmoid) and PCR primers targeting the Helicobacter and Wolinella genera were utilized. Seventy of 354 biopsies were deemed positive, with 35% of patients positive in at least one site. The positivity rate was similar between sites and ranged between 17.5% (terminal ileum) and 21.5% (caecum). Analysis of sequenced product identified H. pylori in the majority of patients (n=18, 18%) and W. succinogenes in four (4%). Nine sequences did not match any in the blast database, while one was a close match to H. fennelliae. There did not appear to be any association between the presence of Helicobacter organisms and colonic disease, although this may be in part due to the low pick-up rate of non-pylori Helicobacter organisms in this study. The most recent group to offer data on Helicobacter in IBD is the French group of Laharie et al.

A two-sided P-value of <0·05 was considered statistically signifi

A two-sided P-value of <0·05 was considered statistically significant. To determine the role of different differentiation stages of B cells and Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of RA, a total of 25 patients with new-onset RA and 15

gender- and age-matched HC were recruited. There was no significant difference in the distribution of age and gender and the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes between the patients and HC (Table 1). As expected, the levels of serum RF, CRP and anti-CCP and the values of ESR in the patients were significantly higher than that in the HC. We characterized the frequency of different differentiation stages of B cells by flow cytometry analysis. As shown in Fig. 1, the percentages of IgD+CD27−CD19+ (naive B), CD86+CD19+, CD95+CD19+ B cells in those patients were significantly higher than that in the HC. In contrast, the frequency of IgD+CD27+CD19+ mTOR inhibitor preswitch Bcl-2 inhibitor memory B cells was significantly lower in the patients than that in the HC. There was no significant difference in the frequency of IgD−CD27+CD19+ post-switch memory B cells, IgD−CD27−CD19+ double-negative

B cells, CD38+CD19+ and TLR-9+CD19+ B cells between the RA patients and HC. Interestingly, the percentages of CD86+CD19+ B cells were correlated positively with the values of DAS28 in those patients (Fig. 1c). However, there was no significant correlation between the values of DAS28 and the frequency of other B cell subsets in this population (data

not shown). Given that CD86 and CD95 were up-regulated in B cells, our data indicated that the higher frequency of activated B cells contributed to the pathogenesis of RA in Chinese patients with new-onset RA. Tfh cells can promote B cell activation, expansion and differentiation. To investigate the potential role of Tfh cells in the development of RA, we characterized the percentages of peripheral blood CD3+CD4+CXCR5+ cells in total CD3+CD4+ T cells in patients and HC by flow cytometry analysis (Fig. 2a). We found that the percentages of CD3+CD4+CXCR5+cells, CD3+CD4+ICOS+CXCR5+, CD3+CD4+PD-1+CXCR5+ and CD3+CD4+ICOS+PD-1+CXCR5+ Tfh cells in CD3+CD4+CXCR5+ cells in the patients were significantly higher than those in the HC (Fig. 2b). Given that Tfh cells can secrete IL-21, which has been shown to regulate all B cell differentiation and proliferation [23-25], we examined the concentrations of serum IL-21 in those patients and HC by ELISA (Fig. 2c). We found that the levels of serum IL-21 in the patients were significantly higher than that in the HC. These data clearly indicated a higher frequency of activated Tfh cells and higher levels of serum IL-21 in patients with new-onset RA, and may contribute to the development of RA. Next, we examined the relationship between Tfh and B cells in RA patients and found that the percentages of CD3+CD4+CXCR5+ cells were correlated positively with the frequency of CD19+ B cells in those patients (Fig. 3a).

Consistent with this finding,

Balboa et al [21] report t

Consistent with this finding,

Balboa et al. [21] report that p38 is hyperphosphorylated in CD16+ monocytes from TB patients, which may explain their reduced capacity to differentiate into DCs. In more general terms, the higher frequency of CD16+ monocytes observed in TB patients still has to be understood because high CD16 frequency is also characteristic of other infectious and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. On the one hand, it would be of interest to examine whether the shift in the monocyte population toward a CD16+ subset, along with the hyperactivation of p38 MAPK, might be dependent on the RD-1 (region of difference-1) virulence locus [28]. Indeed, studies selleck products may be carried out using nonpathogenic mycobacteria strains (e.g., Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin) or mutants lacking this https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sorafenib.html region (i.e., H37∆RD1). On the other

hand, the predominance of the CD16+ monocyte subset in inflammatory conditions might rather reflect a host-driven protective response to limit the immunopathology caused by (chronic) infectious agents such as M. tuberculosis. Factors such as transforming growth factor TGF-β, known to induce CD16+ monocyte differentiation, are usually involved in the immunomodulation responses by the host to preserve tissue integrity. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased in the blood of TB patients [29, 30]. Based on the findings reported by Balboa et al. [21], it is tempting to conclude that CD16+ monocytes might be a cause for TB susceptibility rather than a consequence of it. To test this hypothesis, studies using in vivo depletion models [31] will be required to understand whether Ly6C+ monocytes, the equivalent to human CD16+ monocytes in the mouse, play a detrimental or beneficial role during TB. If their prominence in TB infection results in a significant decrease in the numbers

of DCs with the ability to efficiently activate adaptive immunity, then it might be predicted that the depletion of CD16+ monocytes would trigger a better T-cell response and better clearance of M. tuberculosis in infected hosts. By contrast, if CD16+ monocytes are essential to the generation of regulatory cells to protect against immunopathology, Montelukast Sodium then TB will result in lung tissue injury from uncontrolled inflammation in their absence. Whether or not any of the implications discussed above hold true, what is certain is that the current report by Balboa et al. [20] has brought us a step closer to solve the enigma of how M. tuberculosis impairs the Ag presentation process, and is likely to yield new avenues of investigation in monocyte development and the signaling pathways involved in their activation. We thank D. Hudrisier for critical evaluation of this manuscript.

In vitro, luliconazole is one of the most potent antifungal agent

In vitro, luliconazole is one of the most potent antifungal agents against filamentous fungi including dermatophytes. Luliconazole has been formulated in a 10% solution with unique molecular properties, which allow it to penetrate the nail plate and rapidly achieve fungicidal levels in the nail unit. These properties make luliconazole a potent compound in the treatment of onychomycosis. This article reviews the development of luliconazole solution, 10% its molecular

properties, preclinical and clinical data and its future perspectives for the treatment of fungal infections. “
“Incidence and mortality of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis (C/IC) learn more is relatively high in Latin America versus North America and Europe. To assess efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) anidulafungin in Latin American adults with documented C/IC. All

patients in this open-label study received initial IV anidulafungin with optional step-down to oral voriconazole after 5 days; total treatment duration was 14–42 days. The primary endpoint was global response (clinical + microbiological response) at end of treatment (EOT); missing/indeterminate responses were failures. Crizotinib The study enrolled 54 patients; 44 had confirmed C/IC within 96 h before study entry and comprised the modified intent-to-treat population. Global response at EOT was 59.1% (95% CI: 44.6, 73.6), with 13 missing/indeterminate assessments. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 43.1%. Fourteen patients (31.8%) were able to step-down to oral voriconazole;

these patients had lower baseline acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores and were less likely to have solid tumours or previous abdominal surgery. Anidulafungin was generally well tolerated with few treatment-related adverse events. Anidulafungin was associated with relatively low response rates influenced by a high rate of missing/indeterminate assessments and mortality comparable to other recent candidaemia studies in Latin America. In a subset of patients with lower APACHE II scores, short-course anidulafungin followed Pregnenolone by oral voriconazole was successful. Candida spp. are the main cause of invasive fungal disease worldwide and an important cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, primarily affecting those who are in an intensive care unit (ICU), neutropenic, elderly, transplant recipients, or premature neonates.[1] Mortality attributable to candidaemia remains unacceptably high (general estimates range from 15 to 47% in adults) and is related to factors such as a lack of diagnostic sensitivity, comorbidities, severity of disease and causative Candida species.[2, 3] In Latin America, there are limited data available, but crude mortality rates for candidaemia in clinical studies are reported to be higher than in North America and Europe (50–54% vs. an average of ~31% respectively).

4 Albendazole is effective treatment for infection with Encephali

4 Albendazole is effective treatment for infection with Encephalitozoon species but is less effective for Enterocytozoon infections. Fumagillin is considered more effective for Enterocytozoon infections but it has significant bone marrow toxicity. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of disseminated microsporidiosis have been reported worldwide in non-HIV, solid organ transplant and bone marrow transplant recipients.5E. bieneusi was the most commonly isolated microsporidia and disseminated disease with Encephalitozoon species in non-HIV-infected,

transplant recipients is considered rare with only five such cases being reported worldwide.3 check details Moreover, mortality rates are high and diagnosis was established post-mortem in many instances. This case is the first LY2835219 disseminated microsporidiosis with Encephalitozoon species in a non-HIV, solid organ transplant recipient to be reported and successfully treated in Australia. None. “
“Cystatin-C (CysC) has been demonstrated as a sensitive and reliable biomarker to predict the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there are few studies concerned about the relationship between CysC and the outcomes of AKI. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CysC elevation prior to definite diagnosis of AKI is related to higher prevalence of death and dialysis

need outcome. A meta-analysis was conducted by searching PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library database Glutathione peroxidase using the terms related to AKI combined with ‘cystatin-C’. Bibliographies of relevant papers were reviewed manually. Eligible studies were those investigating death and dialysis need outcomes after AKI with CysC measurement, and were limited to English articles. Non-human studies were excluded. Random effect Mantel-Haenszel statistical method was used. Six studies were finally enrolled, consisting of 2332 patients. All of these studies were hospital-based prospective cohort studies. The follow-up duration varied from 5 days to 1 year. The odds ratio values for baseline CysC elevation and death as well as baseline CysC elevation and dialysis

need were 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46–3.75) and 4.40 (95% CI 1.58–12.22), respectively (both P < 0.05). Patients with CysC elevated prior to AKI diagnosis have higher risk to develop death and need dialysis during short- and long-term follow-up after AKI, thus having worse outcomes. This population deserves more careful observation and might benefit from more frequent follow-up visits in the clinic. Future work is needed to get a consensus cut-off value defining CysC elevation. "
“Aim:  To identify the variations in paediatric renal biopsy pathology and clinicopathological features during the past 31 years. Methods:  A retrospective analysis of paediatric renal biopsies performed at a single institution in Shanghai from January 1979 to December 2009 was conducted.

3 mL of 1 × 1010/mL EHEC O157:H7 The mice were provided with foo

3 mL of 1 × 1010/mL EHEC O157:H7. The mice were provided with food and water from 12 hr after being infected, and their deaths were recorded. All the data was expressed as . F testing was used to analyze the antibody OD values of each group and χ2 testing to analyze the

differences in survival rates between the immunized and control groups CHIR-99021 manufacturer after infection with EHEC O157:H7. We analyzed β-turn, flexibility, hydrophilicity, accessibility, and antigenicity of IntC300 using the methods of Hopp-Woods (14), Chou-Fasman (15), Karplus-Schulz (16), Emini (17), Jameson-Wolf (18) and Kolaskar-Tongaonakar (19). The results are shown in Figure 1. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the outcome predicted by different approaches and the possible locations of B-cell epitopes are shown in Table 1. Table 1 shows that the peptide segments of 658–669, 711–723, 824–833, 897–914, 919–931 are consistent with the prediction using β-turn, flexibility, hydrophilicity, accessibility, and antigenicity as indices. This indicates

that the B-cell epitopes are located within or near the above peptide segments. The amino acid sequences of five peptides are given in Table 2. We chose one of the predicted EHEC O157:H7 IntC300 B-cell epitopes, KT-12. We synthesized it and coupled it with KLH, then immunized mice by subcutaneous injection and intranasal delivery on days 1, 14 and 28. Orbital blood was taken on days 0, 21 and 35 and indirect ELISA used for detection of OD values for IgG (Fig. Quisqualic acid 2) and IgA antibodies (Fig. 3). As seen in Figure 2, after subcutaneous and intranasal immunization Nutlin-3a manufacturer serum IgG antibody concentrations gradually increased from day 0 through days 21 and 35, indicating that both kinds of immunization were able to induce high concentrations of IgG antibodies compared to the control groups. The differences in serum IgG concentrations were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Further, a higher concentration of IgG antibody was produced in the group that received

subcutaneous immunization than in the intranasal immunization group (P < 0.05). Figure 3 shows that after intranasal immunization serum IgA antibody concentrations increased gradually from day 0, through days 21 and 35 compared with the control group. The difference in serum IgA concentrations was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In contrast, the difference between the test and the control group in IgA antibody concentrations was not statistically significant for subcutaneous immunization. Intranasal mucosal immunization induced high concentrations of IgA antibodies, whereas subcutaneous immunization did not. A higher concentration of IgA antibody was produced by mice that received intranasal immunization than by those that received subcutaneous immunization. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 882364 (1 × 1010 CFU/mL) was used to infect mice by the oral route.

The inflammasome links the sensing of pathogen and danger signals

The inflammasome links the sensing of pathogen and danger signals to pro-IL-1β processing. The NALP3 inflammasome is the best-known inflammasome, detecting bacterial wall components or the bacteria themselves. In addition, NALP3 can be activated by signals that induce potassium efflux, such as MAPK Inhibitor Library ATP, via its P2X7 receptor.3 The importance of the inflammasomes in human disease is illustrated by the discovery that cryopyrin-associated

periodic syndromes are the result of mutations in the NALP3 gene4 and that monosodium urate (MSU) crystals induce inflammation through the NALP3 inflammasome.5 There are scant data on inflammasome expression in RA. Rosengren et al. showed that NALP3 RNA levels were increased in RA synovium and that macrophages differentiated in vitro increased NALP3 expression when stimulated by tumour necrosis factor (TNF).6 We therefore analysed the expression NALP3 and ASC in the synovium as well as examining the capacity of RA synovial fibroblasts to produce active IL-1β. Synovial tissues from patients with RA and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were also compared for the expression of NLR proteins and their production of IL-1β and caspase-1. Synovial tissues were obtained see more from nine patients

with RA (nine women, mean age 58·6 ± 11·6 years) and 11 patients with OA (five women, six men, mean age 74·6 ± 11·7 years) undergoing joint replacement surgery of the knee or the hip Mirabegron (Department of Orthopaedics, CHUV). Osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical and radiological

criteria and RA patients fulfilled the American Rheumatism Association revised criteria for RA. All tissues were cut into small pieces and immediately frozen in pre-cooled hexane and stored at −70° until use, or fixed in formol and embedded in paraffin. Ethical committee approval was obtained for these experiments. Fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) lines were established as described previously.7 Cells were used between the third and seventh passages. Synoviocyte cell cultures or, as positive control, THP-1 cells (2 × 105 cells/well) were incubated in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s minimal essential medium or RPMI-1640 medium containing 0·5% fetal calf serum, with or without the following stimuli: lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 μg/ml), ATP (5 mm), H2O2 (30 μm), TNF-α (10 ng/ml) and MSU (200 μg/ml). After 24 hr incubation, culture supernatants were harvested, and cells were suspended for 20 min in 200 μl ice-cold lysis buffer [50 mm Tris–HCl pH 7·4, 110 mm NaCl, 10 mm ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 0·1% nonidet P-40 (NP-40)] containing a protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Buchs, Switzerland). The detergent-soluble proteins were separated by centrifugation (14 000 g for 15 min at 4°).

Recently, a novel form of fetal systemic inflammation, characteri

Recently, a novel form of fetal systemic inflammation, characterized by an elevation of fetal plasma CXCL10, has been identified in patients with placental lesions consistent with ‘maternal anti-fetal rejection’. These lesions include chronic chorioamnionitis, plasma cell deciduitis, and villitis of unknown etiology. In addition, positivity for U0126 research buy human leukocyte antigen (HLA) panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) in maternal sera can also be used to increase

the index of suspicion for maternal anti-fetal rejection. The purpose of this study was to determine (i) the frequency of pathologic lesions consistent with maternal anti-fetal rejection in term and spontaneous preterm births; (ii) the fetal serum concentration of CXCL10 in patients with and without evidence of maternal anti-fetal rejection; and (iii) the fetal blood transcriptome and proteome in cases with a fetal inflammatory response associated with maternal anti-fetal rejection. Maternal and fetal sera were obtained from normal term (n = 150) and spontaneous preterm births (n = 150). A fetal inflammatory response associated with maternal anti-fetal rejection

was diagnosed when the patients met two or more of the following criteria: (i) presence of chronic AZD2014 price placental inflammation; (ii) ≥80% of maternal HLA class I PRA positivity; and (iii) fetal serum CXCL10 concentration >75th percentile. Maternal HLA PRA was analyzed by flow cytometry. The concentrations of fetal CXCL10 and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. Transcriptome analysis was undertaken after the extraction of total RNA from white blood cells with a whole-genome DASL assay. Proteomic analysis of fetal serum was conducted by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Differential gene expression was considered significant when there

was a P < 0.01 and a fold-change >1.5. (i) The frequency of placental lesions Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase consistent with maternal anti-fetal rejection was higher in patients with preterm deliveries than in those with term deliveries (56% versus 32%; P < 0.001); (ii) patients with spontaneous preterm births had a higher rate of maternal HLA PRA class I positivity than those who delivered at term (50% versus 32%; P = 0.002); (iii) fetuses born to mothers with positive maternal HLA PRA results had a higher median serum CXCL10 concentration than those with negative HLA PRA results (P < 0.001); (iv) the median serum CXCL10 concentration (but not IL-6) was higher in fetuses with placental lesions associated with maternal anti-fetal rejection than those without such lesions (P < 0.

The effect of radiographic contrast on pre-dialysis renal failure

The effect of radiographic contrast on pre-dialysis renal failure should also be taken into consideration in the choice of imaging modality. Veins of adequate size (probably

> 2.5 mm) identified on USA should be used. Arteries with adequate size and flow identified Akt targets on USA should be used (probably > 2 mm). No recommendations possible based on Level I or II evidence. (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) All patients, especially those with co-morbid conditions, should be referred to a vascular access surgeon well in advance of the anticipated need for haemodialysis. The exact timing depends on patient-related factors and local facilities. Several procedures may be required to establish a useable native AVF. Maturation of AVF may be prolonged (3 months or more) in some patients. Skin at the intended cannulation site should be prepared with an alcohol based solution. (Level II evidence) Cannulation should be undertaken using a clean or ‘aseptic’ technique. (Level II evidence) Compared with the rope ladder technique, button-hole technique is associated with an increased risk of local and systemic infection and should not be routinely performed. (Level II evidence) (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) It is suggested that assessment of the

AVF/AVG be undertaken each time prior to cannulation. Patency should be checked for adequate bruit and thrill, and the site inspected for signs of infection. Rope ladder technique is suggested for cannulation of arteriovenous fistulae and grafts. Button-hole technique Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor maybe useful

for patients with significantly reduced cannulation area of the AVF after discussion of the potential benefits and harms. We suggest strict adherence to infection control procedures be undertaken to minimize infection risk when using button hole technique for cannulation. Patients should be instructed on the care of the AVF/AVG between cannulation sessions in 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl particular: ■  Vein preservation: avoidance of cannulation in the effected limb The preferred vascular access type is the AVF, followed by the AVG.[6, 9, 10] In patients where the AVG or AVG has not been created, is not ready for use or is not possible, haemodialysis can be performed using a central venous catheter (CVC). Subjects dialyzing using central venous catheters are at increased risk for catheter-related infection (CRI) and have increased morbidity and mortality as well as higher costs.[1, 11-13] In Australia (57%) and in New Zealand (69%) of patients commence haemodialysis through a central venous catheter (tunnelled and non-tunnelled).[14] The mortality rate for patients commencing haemodialysis with a CVC, is higher than for patients commencing with an AVF or AVG, for all age groups.

[6] Rabbit monoclonal anti-acetylated tubulin

[6] Rabbit monoclonal anti-acetylated tubulin Torin 1 is also available and in our experience gives the same pattern of labelling as the mouse version. Other antibodies against alpha- and beta-tubulin will label the cilium, but the signal from the cilium may be lost among other structures containing tubulin, particularly in sections of a complicated organ such as the kidney. Arl13b is a small GTPase that is defective in Joubert syndrome, a ciliopathy with a cystic renal phenotype.[48] Arl13b is associated with the ciliary membrane and antibodies against this protein reliably label primary cilia (Fig. 3d–f)

in the kidney and in cultures of renal epithelial cells.[48-50] Labelling of the renal primary cilium using rabbit polyclonal anti-Arl13b or rabbit monoclonal anti-acetylated tubulin are useful approaches when co-labelling with a mouse monoclonal antibody against another ciliary or marker protein precludes the use of mouse monoclonal anti-acetylated tubulin. Gamma-tubulin is a component of microtubule organizing centres and is found in the region of the basal body.[57-59] Antibodies against this tubulin check details isoform can be used to determine the orientation of cilia labelled with anti-acetylated tubulin. In this case a rabbit polyclonal anti-gamma-tubulin is used to label the basal body in combination with

mouse monoclonal anti-acetylated alpha-tubulin labelling of the axoneme (Fig. 3b). The basal body is an essential staging area required for the assembly and normal function of the cilium so anti gamma-tubulin is used to assess basal body

localization of cilium-associated transport and signalling components. Monoclonal mouse anti-gamma-tubulin is also available and can be used in combination with polyclonal antibodies from other species. Several proteins that are defective or deficient in human and/or animal models of cystic kidney disease have also been immunolocalized to the primary cilium and basal body. These proteins include MKS1, Nephrocystins, BBS proteins and IFT components such as IFT88 (Table 1). The key human PKD proteins polycystin-1, polycystin-2 and fibrocystin are difficult to raise effective antibodies against. Commercially available antibodies are useful for immunoblotting, but published examples BCKDHB of immunolocalization to the primary cilium typically use antibodies produced by the authors or generous colleagues.[15, 46, 60-62] Nuclear counterstains for DNA (DAPI or Hoechst) and segment/cell type specific markers compliment primary cilium immunolabelling and facilitate navigation within the kidney (Fig. 3). Useful markers include: Lotus tetragonolobus lectin for the proximal tubule (Fig. 3a), anti-thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter for the distal tubule, and Dolichos biflorus lectin for the collecting duct.