The main route of clearance for SRL is also biliary; with 91% of

The main route of clearance for SRL is also biliary; with 91% of SRL metabolites found in feces and 2.2% in urine [21]. SRL has a longer elimination half-life of 62 h. The long half-life requires a loading dose if steady-state concentrations are to be reached quickly, but it also enables once-daily CX-5461 manufacturer SRL dosing [21]. A number of metabolites have been identified for

both SRL and EVR, but these display minimal activity [20] and [30]. EVR has 4 main metabolites: hydroxy-EVR, dihydroxy-EVR, demethyl-EVR, and the ring-opened form of EVR [18]. SRL forms demethylated, monohydroxylated, dihydroxylated, and didemethylated metabolites [20]. Intra- and inter-patient variability in both EVR and SRL exposure has been found to be moderate to high. The mean values of intra- and inter-patient variability in AUC has been determined for both EVR (27% and 31%, respectively) [26] and SRL (64% and 60%, respectively) [22] when administered with CsA and corticosteroids in de novo kidney transplant patients. Demographic factors including sex, age, or weight did not contribute to the inter-patient variability of EVR. Black patients, however, had a 20% lower exposure to EVR compared to white patients although it is unclear what role reduced bioavailability and/or increased Bcl-2 inhibitor clearance has to play in this observation. This lower exposure requires a higher dose of EVR to achieve the therapeutic range and may help to explain

the reduced efficacy that has been demonstrated in black patients in some but not all analyses [26] and [31]. The intra- and inter-patient variability in drug exposure emphasizes the need for TDM with EVR and SRL [22]. It can be seen that SRL and EVR share several pharmacokinetic characteristics, including high intra- and inter-patient variability and correlation of C0 with exposure. The main difference is the much longer half-life of SRL; this allows for

once-daily administration but may make it more difficult to manage in the event that interruption of therapy is necessary. The mTOR inhibitors and CNIs are all substrates of hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4 enzymes and P-glycoprotein. Competition for these shared biotransformation or transport pathways may interfere with the absorption or elimination of the drugs, potentially leading to clinically significant alterations in exposure when these agents are coadministered [18] and [21]. The current recommended standard oral dosage of TAC when administered with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and an induction agent is 0.1 mg/kg daily (administered as 2 divided doses 12 h apart). When administered over months 1 to 12, this dosage has resulted in a C0 of 4–11 ng/mL [32]. Few studies have characterized the pharmacokinetics of EVR and TAC when used in a combined immunosuppressive regimen. An open-label, exploratory study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of EVR and TAC in 8 maintenance renal transplant patients with CNI intolerance initially receiving MMF and TAC [33].

in 2009 have shown [83] However the preference coordination site

in 2009 have shown [83]. However the preference coordination site of Zn, the Ca2 site of the HA crystal, would allow the uptake

and release of Zn as the Ca2 site framework of the structure is not disrupted [83]. Zn2 + is not simply incorporated by ion exchange processes, but Ca2 + vacancy-defects can act as plausible sites for Zn2 + substitution [84]. As said above, Zn is essential for bone metabolism, as it is part of enzymes important for the remodeling mechanisms of bone and the Zn released during bone remodeling is incorporated back into the bone [46], [50] and [52]. GDC-0449 The matching of qBEI images with μ-XRF obtained elemental maps could not be perfectly performed. The different lateral resolutions of SR μ-XRF (~ 10–20 μm) and of qBEI (1–2 μm) make an exact overlay of both maps impossible. Thin features (e.g. cement lines) in the qBEI are blurred in the μ-XRF maps. Furthermore the larger information depth of SR μ-XRF (~ 20 μm for Ca-Kα) compared to qBEI (~ 1 μm) contributes to further blurring. Features close below the surface (e.g. cement lines, or cavities/voids) are not detected by qBEI but might be visible in the corresponding μ-XRF maps. However, superimposing the corresponding SR μ-XRF elemental maps and BE images was found to be very useful in linking bone morphology with X-ray intensities. An underestimation of Zn and Pb

signal intensities in the cement lines is introduced due to the fact that the cement lines are much thinner (in the range of 2 μm) Akt tumor than the focused X-ray beam width. The XRF signal is averaged over a larger matrix volume than the true cement line feature occupies. Hence the obtained Suplatast tosilate data shows a lower limit for the real relative elemental concentration. Assuming a SR μ-XRF voxel size of 12 × 13 × 17 μm3 and a cement line of width of 1 μm a 2-fold increase in Pb level in the cement line as measured by μ-XRF might be the result of an actual 34-fold

increase. To determine the signal intensity ratios of Zn and Pb between cement lines and mineralized bone matrix and to further investigate their spatial distribution within the cement line scans or even mappings at nano focus beam lines such as P06 at PETRA III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) are planned for the future. No absolute values (wt.%) of Zn, Pb and Sr can be given. Thus, only relative differences between the elements could be reported. Since bone is a complex and highly heterogeneous organic mineral compound, there is no suitable reference material yet for calibration of the experimental setup available, which would have allowed obtaining the absolute concentrations of trace elements corresponding to each measured X-ray count rates. The incorporated Pb, Zn and Sr ions in HA will most likely distort the crystal lattice of the mineral due to the different atomic sizes compared to Ca. This might have negative effects on the stability and strength of the mineral.

This downward flow makes possible the deep aeration of sediment a

This downward flow makes possible the deep aeration of sediment and the transport of fine particles deep into the seabed. An equal volume of water leaves the sediment as compensation for the downward flow.

In effect, each surface sediment layer is washed twice in a cycle, unless this flow washes the sides of the bank. A particle movement model through a permeable sediment was described by Huettel et al. (1996) and Rush et al. (2006). Besides the hydraulic selleck inhibitor pressure of waves, the second mechanism that may be responsible for circulation in the porous layer in Svalbardbanken involves tidal currents and bottom Ekman layer formation. Tidal forcing was modelled by Kowalik & Proshutinsky (1995), who found residual currents of 8 cm s− 1 over Spitsbergenbanken. The model by Massel et al., 2004 and Massel et al., 2005 was constructed for a uniform, geostrophic flow in a homogeneous fluid over a flat porous bottom. An additional effect may be sea bed roughness, which increases turbulent mixing; according to Reidenbach et al. (2010), a cobble bed increases mixing and downstream transport 7.5

times compared to a smooth surface. Other models of water flux forced by gravity waves were produced by King et al. (2009); they show a ca 0.3 m deep penetration of water into the sediment, which is consistent find more with the data obtained for fine coastal sands in the Baltic Sea (Massel et al. 2004). In view of measured and modelled spring and summer concentrations of microplankton biomass (0.05 g ww m− 3 – Piwosz et al. 2009) and a flow rate into the sediment of between 8160 and 15 912 m3 m− 2 day− 1 (Table 2), it is estimated that during 10 days of stormy weather as much as 4 to 8 kg of pelagic biomass wet weight passes through each m2 of Svalbardbanken sediment (Table 2). The figures suggest that the site under examination is an extremely active filter system, important for recycling nutrients and sustaining regional primary production rates.

A similar Cobimetinib mw role of permeable shallows was postulated for temperate shelf environments (Huettel et al., 1996 and Ehrenhauss et al., 2004). A number of studies on the mineralization of organic matter in permeable sediments have been performed in coastal and very shallow waters (Huettel et al. 1996, Rush et al. 2003, 2006): all of them indicate that the intensity of organic matter metabolism depends on the intensity of oxygen flow through porous media. Apart from building up the biomass of interstitial organisms, organic carbon processing in the sediments provides the surrounding waters with regenerated nutrients (Huettel et al. 1996). Flow through the permeable sediment in the offshore banks of the Gulf of Mexico is an important source of nutrients and bioavailable iron for the whole region (Gibbes et al. 2008). There are three main pathways along which organic matter can be oxidized in the sediment – abiotic, microbial, and indirectly through meiofauna (Opaliński et al. 2010).

All treatment plans used a prescription dose of 145 Gy with 125I

All treatment plans used a prescription dose of 145 Gy with 125I sources and aimed to satisfy the following dosimetric parameters: percentage

of PTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose (PTV V100) >95%, percentage of PTV receiving 150% of the prescription dose (PTV V150) <60%, percentage of PTV receiving 200% of the prescription dose (PTV V200) <20%, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (R100) <1 cm3, and urethral volume receiving 200% of the prescription dose (U200) to be near 0. All patients underwent permanent interstitial prostate implants, and intraoperative TRUS BMS 777607 was used to guide needle placement and verify the positioning of the strands. In addition to CT scans on Day 0 and Day 30 after the implant, all patients underwent sMRI on postimplant Day 30. For the purposes of the present study, the preimplant

erMRI and 30-day postimplant sMRI images were used to retrospectively replan the seed placement for each patient. The T2-weighted series for both the erMRI and sMRI were imported into the VariSeed system. Contours for the prostate, bladder, rectum, urethra, and seminal vesicles were outlined independently on the erMRI and sMRI. All contours were approved by the two reviewers. The PTV was defined in the same way as for the actual treatment, as a 3-mm expansion from the Dorsomorphin in vitro prostate anteriorly and laterally, a 5-mm expansion cranially and caudally, and no expansion posteriorly. The erMRI- and sMRI-based Thymidylate synthase plans were jointly developed by a medical dosimetrist and radiation oncologist who were blinded to the TRUS-based plans; they used the same standard modified peripheral loading technique as that used for TRUS-based plans, optimized to the anatomic detail visible on the MRI. Planning was

done independently for both erMRI and sMRI. All MRI-based treatment plans were designed to satisfy the same dosimetric parameters as those used in the actual treatments: PTV V100 >95%, V150 <60%, V200 <20%, R100 <1 cm3, and U200 near 0. Prostate volume and dimensions, the radioactivity-to-prostate-volume ratio, and dosimetric parameters (PTV V100, V150, V200; dose to 90% of the prostate [D90]; R100; U200) were compared for the three modalities (TRUS, erMRI, and sMRI) by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Comparisons were performed pair wise between each of the MRI modalities and TRUS. All p-values were obtained by using two-tailed tests, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data were analyzed with PASW Statistics 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). To determine whether the different imaging modalities resulted in differences in the visualized anatomy of the prostate, the mean prostate volume and dimensions measured by TRUS, erMRI, and sMRI were compared (Table 1). When compared with TRUS, the mean prostate volume measured by erMRI was smaller (29.5 vs. 32.5 cm3 by TRUS, p = 0.001), the mean medial-lateral diameter was larger (5.01 erMRI vs. 4.

Whole cell lysates and immunoblotting were as previously describe

Whole cell lysates and immunoblotting were as previously described [16]. The following antibodies were employed: mouse monoclonal anti-ATP5B, rabbit monoclonal anti-JNK, mouse monoclonal anti-Cdc37, rabbit polyclonal anti-p38MAPK (all from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA); mouse monoclonal anti-caspase 8, mouse monoclonal anti-caspase 9, mouse monoclonal anti-phospho-p38MAPK (T180/Y182), mouse monoclonal anti-phospho-AKT (S473), rabbit polyclonal anti-phospho-AKT (T308), mouse monoclonal anti-cytochrome c, rabbit polyclonal anti-p44/42

MAPK (ERK1/2), rabbit polyclonal anti-phospho-GSK3β (S9), rabbit monoclonal anti-caspase 3, rabbit monoclonal anti-phospho-p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2, [T202/Y204]), rabbit monoclonal anti-NF-κB/p65, rabbit monoclonal anti-phospho-NF-κB/p65 [(S536), all from Cell Signaling Technology]; mouse monoclonal anti-GSK3β,

Dasatinib datasheet anti-PARP and anti-AKT1 (BD Biosciences, CA, USA); mouse monoclonal anti-β-actin (Sigma-Aldrich); SCH 900776 research buy mouse monoclonal anti-CK2α/α’ (1AD9) and mouse monoclonal anti-CK2β (6D5) (both from KinaseDetect); rabbit polyclonal anti-phospho-JNK [(T183/Y185), Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA]. Rabbit polyclonal anti-phospho-Cdc37 (S13) was kindly provided by Dr. Miyata, Kyoto University, Japan. Secondary antibodies goat-anti-rabbit and goat-anti-mouse, coupled to alkaline phosphatase, were purchased from Jackson ImmunoResearch, Newmarket, United Kingdom. Protein-antibody complexes were visualized by a chemiluminescent detection system using CDP-Star (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) substrate according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The measurement of cathepsin B activity was carried out with the cathepsin B activity fluorometric assay kit (BioVision, San Francisco, CA, USA). In brief, cells were collected by scraping, washed with cold PBS and lysed with lysis buffer. 100 μg whole cell lysate was employed for the determination of enzyme activity in the presence

of amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (AFC) conjugated to the cathepsin B sequence target Ac-RR (Ac-RR-AFC, 200 μM final concentration in the assay). Fluorescence emission was measured with a fluorometer (SPEX Fluorolog F2C, NJ, USA) employing FER a 400 nm excitation filter and a 505 nm emission filter. Acquired data were processed by DataMax software (Jobin YvonTM, NJ, USA). All experiments were carried out at least three times and with triple measurements, if not otherwise stated. Standard deviation values (S.D.) are indicated in the diagrams as error bars. Statistical significance of results was calculated with the Student’s t-test (two-tailed, same variance). Statistical significance is indicated in the figure legends by P values calculated between two sets of data. A preliminary chemoluminescence-based screening of a small molecule compound library in search of novel protein kinase CK2 inhibitors, led to the identification of C11, a mixture of two individual compounds; i.e.

As can be seen from Table 3, the results with algorithms

As can be seen from Table 3, the results with algorithms

selleck chemicals #9 – Baltic_chlor_MODIS and #10 – Baltic_chlor_a_2 (Darecki & Stramski 2004) are better than those obtained with the MODIS_standard but noticeably worse than those using the regional algorithm #8. The results of the comparison of TSM values, calculated from the floating spectroradiometer and MODIS-Aqua data using the regional algorithm (3), with the measured ones are presented in Table 4 (TSM is not a standard product processed from MODIS-Aqua data). As seen from Table 4, retrieval from satellite data, as compared with in situ data, results in an increase in errors and a lowering of the coefficient of determination, but the algorithms work acceptably with satellite data – the averaged ratio of the calculated TSM values to the measured ones is 1.21; the maximum overestimation is > 60%, and the underestimation PCI32765 is 21%. The errors of the atmospheric correction are analysed in more detail in the next paragraph. As mentioned above, the values of ρ(λ), measured with a floating spectroradiometer,

can be used for validating the atmospheric correction algorithm if the measurements are performed simultaneously with satellite observations. For that, we have the 10 stations considered above. Four comparisons between spectra of the remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ), measured in situ and retrieved from satellite data of MODIS-Aqua and VIIRS, are shown in Figure 13. It is seen that the atmospheric correction is not ideal – the errors are rather great in

most cases. But from the practical point of view, only the errors for spectral bands of 531 and 547 nm, used in the bio-optical algorithm, are important. But as Figure 13 shows, the errors for these wavelengths are not so high. The effect of errors in the input parameter X on the retrieval of Chl concentration with our regional algorithm #8 can be estimated by using the approximation formula equation(4) Δ(logChl)=ΔX(19.8−85.4X),Δ(logChl)=ΔX(19.8−85.4X),where Δ (log Chl) is the error in log Chl, Δ X – in the X parameter. The errors in the retrieval of different input parameters of the bio-optical algorithms are presented in Table 5. One of our objectives was to estimate the effect of the atmospheric correction www.selleck.co.jp/products/BafilomycinA1.html using different spectral bands on the derived values of the input parameter; the calculation was performed with MODIS-Aqua and VIIRS satellite data (averaged over 9 pixels). For comparison, the values calculated from the floating spectroradiometer data (11 stations in 2012 and 2013) were taken (‘measured’). Three potential input parameters using different spectral bands of MODIS-Aqua and VIIRS scanners are considered: X1 = log[Rrs(547)/Rrs(531)], X2 = log[Rrs(547)/Rrs(488)] and X3 = log[Rrs(551)/Rrs(486)]. It is seen from Table 5 that the errors increase when using spectral bands of 488 nm (MODIS) or 486 nm (VIIRS) instead of 531 nm.

3±7 2 in 20 food items presented) under the ‘Hara-Hachibu’ condit

3±7.2 in 20 food items presented) under the ‘Hara-Hachibu’ condition (P=0.004). After epochs with artifacts were excluded from analyses by visual inspection, the mean number of epochs used in the analysis

was shown in Table 1. The main effects of image [F(1,10)=0.484, P=0.502] and condition [F(1,10)=0.616, P=0.451] and an image × condition interaction effect [F(1,10)=0.051, P=0.825] were not shown in the number of epochs. A typical example of magnetic fields and isofield contour map caused by viewing the food pictures is shown in Fig. 1. The mean latencies for all four conditions were shown in Table 2. Although the main effect of image [F(1,1)=400.00, P=0.032] was shown, that of the condition [F(1,1)=4.000, P=0.295] and the image× condition interaction effect [F(1,1)=0.269, P=0.695] were not shown in the latencies. There were not significant differences in Stem Cells inhibitor the latencies among the four conditions. While we could identify the magnetic response in the insular

cortex for all participants who viewed food pictures (nine in the right hemisphere, and two in the left hemisphere) in the Fasting condition, the MEG responses in the insular cortex in the ‘Hara-Hachibu’ condition were observed in nine of 11 individuals who viewed food pictures (eight in the right hemisphere, and one in the left hemisphere). Two participants showed responses to mosaic pictures in this brain region (in the left hemisphere alone) Venetoclax nmr in the Fasting condition; such responses

to mosaic pictures were detected in all participants (eight in the right hemisphere, and three in the left hemisphere) in the ‘Hara-Hachibu’ condition. Two participants with insular response to food pictures in the left hemisphere during the Fasting condition were different from two participants without any insular response to food pictures in the ‘Hara-Hachibu’ condition, and also different from two participants who showed insular responses to mosaic pictures during the Fasting condition. Some individuals exhibited multiple activities in the insular cortex; for these subjects, the MEG HAS1 response with the maximal intensity of ECDs was defined as the primary MEG response. Since the absence of ECDs means that insular cortex did not exhibit any significant responses, the intensities of the MEG response were regarded to be zero in the cases where no significant ECDs were observed. The peak latencies of the magnetic responses after the onset of food picture presentation in the Fasting condition were significantly correlated with those in the ‘Hara-Hachibu’ condition (r=0.967, P<0.001) ( Fig. 2A). In contrast, no significant correlation was observed in the intensity of ECDs between the two conditions (r=0.232, P=0.492) ( Fig. 2B). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures showed a tendency of the main effects of image [F(1,10)=4.313, P=0.065] and the significant image×condition interaction effect [F(1,10)=15.379, P=0.

Different types of fat depots exhibit different properties, and t

Different types of fat depots exhibit different properties, and their anatomic location is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and other conditions [91]. The current evidence demonstrates biological and genetic differences between adipose tissues depending on their anatomic location. Specifically, the upper body/visceral fat distribution in obesity is closely associated with metabolic complications [87]. Intra-abdominal tissues are metabolically and functionally different from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and exhibit a higher

capillary density, sympathetic selleck screening library innervation and adrenergic receptor expression [55]. Intra-abdominal tissues release more free fatty acids, glycerol and endocrine hormones into the portal venous system and have direct access to the liver, whereas those derived from SAT are secreted into the systemic circulation [55] and [91]. In our

study, the circulating levels of HDL and VLDL were not significantly altered by the hypercaloric diet and/or chronic stress. The animals subjected to the hypercaloric diet model demonstrated an increase in LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol, similar to the findings in earlier studies using the cafeteria diet [8] and [51]. Studies in humans and animals subjected to chronic stress have been linked to increased levels of serum cholesterol [29] and [85], and the results of our six-week restraint stress mTOR inhibitor Verteporfin cell line protocol confirms the association between stress and cholesterol. The high leptin levels found with the exposure to the high-calorie diet may be related to an increase in fatty tissues, especially visceral fat accumulation, because leptin is synthesized mainly in these tissues [19]. Adipose tissue secretes

signaling molecules that play a central role in weight regulation and metabolic function [108]. Leptin is an adipocyte hormone that signals the status of energy stores in the peripheral tissues to the brain [33], affecting feeding behavior and metabolism [50]. This peptide plays an important role in the regulation of food intake, energy consumption, glucose metabolism, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and the secretion of insulin and the pituitary hormone [2]. In addition, growing evidence suggests that leptin may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction, and chronic hyperleptinemia may increase the risk of cardiac disorders [54]. The circulating leptin levels are proportional to the total amount of the adipose tissue mass, and leptin binds to receptors within specific hypothalamic nuclei to regulate energy balance by reducing appetite [114]. Leptin acts in association with other neuropeptides, such as NPY, which increases food consumption and decreases energy expenditure [3].

, 2009) Expression recognition skills were assessed in the DPs r

, 2009). Expression recognition skills were assessed in the DPs reported here using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, and when compared with appropriate published norming data (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), no deficits were observed. Lower-level vision was also assessed

in order to check whether the participants’ difficulties in face recognition were Selleck AZD2281 underpinned by basic perceptual impairments. Four sub-tests from the Birmingham Object Recognition Battery (BORB: Humphreys & Riddoch, 1993) that have been used in previous investigations (e.g., Bate, Cook, Mole, & Cole, 2013; Garrido et al., 2009) were selected. In the Length Match test, participants are required to judge whether two lines are of the same length; in the Size Match test they judge whether two circles are of the same size; in the Orientation Match test they decide whether two lines are parallel or not; and in the Position of the Gap Match test they decide whether the position of the gap in two circles is in the

same place or not. Basic object recognition was tested using the Object Decision test from the BORB. In this test, the participant is presented with a series of line drawings which depict this website animals or tools. In some trials the drawings represent ‘unreal’ objects (i.e., the picture shows half of one object combined with half of another object), and the participant is asked to decide whether each of 128 drawings represents a real or unreal object. Appropriate norming data for these tests are presented within the BORB, and while eight of the DP participants did not show any evidence of lower-level perceptual difficulties, DP7 was impaired on the Length Match test and DP10 was impaired on both the Length Match and Object Decision tests. As described above, this may reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and the possibility that different sub-types of DP exist. Because DP7 and DP10 only performed poorly on one or two of the five sub-tests, any lower-level visual impairments were not deemed to be severe and the participants

were not removed from our sample. Ten next control participants also participated in this study. They were matched to the DP participants according to age (M = 46.8, SD = 13.2), gender (seven male) and estimated IQ [using the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR): Wechsler, 2001]. All participants reported normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, medication, significant medical or psychiatric illness, history of substance abuse, and epilepsy. All participants provided written consent and participated on a voluntary basis. The study was approved by the departmental Ethics Committee at Bournemouth University. Face memory task: Two new versions of the CFMT ( Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006) were created for use in this experiment (see Fig. 1A). The CFMT is a measure commonly used to assess facial identity memory ( Richler et al., 2011 and Wilmer et al.

, 2010) have suggested that pre-SMA mediates an inhibitory

, 2010) have suggested that pre-SMA mediates an inhibitory

effect of IFG over the primary motor cortex. In our view, NMA data buy Obeticholic Acid may be pertinent to such questions. We present data from the key NMA studies in a way that highlights their relevance to inhibitory cognitive control. We first consider the general method for identifying NMAs. Then we analyze the specificity for inhibiting different effector systems (speech, manual action etc). Then, we consider NMA localization and the features of the stimulation threshold required to elicit a negative motor response. We next consider subjective experience generated by NMA stimulation. Finally, the discussion section considers how NMA data may constrain cognitive and neurophysiological accounts of cognitive control. An introductory word of caution is important here. Effects of DES are typically more focal than those of non-invasive brain stimulation methods, such as TMS or transcranial INCB024360 mw direct current stimulation (tDCS).

The spatial resolution of DES is typically .5 cm (Mandonnet et al., 2009). TDCS has a typical current spread of the order of 2 cm (but it varies with different electrode parameters, see Faria et al., 2011), while TMS has a typical spatial resolution 1–2 cm, though this value is possibly improved for primary motor cortex mapping (Foltys et al., 2001). Nevertheless, although DES may be more local, it still targets a large and heterogeneous cluster of neurons, and a larger set of axons. The effects of DES may be mediated by stimulation or inhibition of neurons, including neurons relatively distant from the electrode site. In fact, remote effects STK38 of DES can be explained by active synaptic activation, rather than by passive current spread. Therefore, care is needed drawing conclusions about function of a stimulated area from DES results. Accordingly, we emphasise here that convergent evidence from other methods is particularly important in understanding the functional significance of NMAs. It is beyond the scope of this review to describe the possible and complex physiological effects of DES (see Borchers et al., 2012 for a critical review). A pioneering

NMA study is that of Lüders et al. (1987), who studied 42 patients. They stimulated each of a set of subdural electrodes with progressively increasing current. When an electrode did not produce any positive motor signs, it was next tested for negative motor responses. Patients were asked to perform rapid alternating eye, tongue, hand or foot movements. NMAs were defined as areas that when stimulated produced cessation/arrest or decrease of the ongoing voluntary movement, without loss of consciousness. Cases in which movement arrest is a secondary consequence of otherwise positive effects, such as muscular co-contraction, were excluded from the NMA definition. Twenty-four studies reporting NMAs were identified in the literature and form the basis of this review. They are summarised in Table 1.