Five years after its introduction in the clinic, however, the fir

Five years after its introduction in the clinic, however, the first serious side effects, notably retroperitoneal fibrosis,62 were published. The frequency was estimated at 1/1000. The frequency was later reestimated at 1/5000.63 Cardiac and pulmonary Erlotinib datasheet fibrosis was described shortly thereafter,64 but in lower frequencies. It is still used as a

fourth choice prophylactic drug in migraine and cluster headache, the administration of which is discontinued for 2 months every half a year. Interestingly, the discovery of methysergide provided an incentive for the development of sumatriptan, when evidence was found for an “atypical” 5-HT receptor in the carotid bed of pigs that was later identified as a 5-HT1B receptor.65 Methysergide appeared to have a partial agonist action upon this receptor, whereas it blocks 5-HT2

receptor.66 Therefore, methysergide not only is an effective prophylactic drug, but also played an important role as a 5-HT antagonist and partial agonist in pharmacological studies. Spreading Oligemia of Cerebral Blood Flow (1981).— The vascular theory with respect to the pathophysiology of migraine led researchers to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF).67 The prerequisite for a precise characterization of rCBF during migraine was the development of a multichannel imaging system with intracarotid injection of Xenon-133 and 254 detectors, which resulted in a spatial resolution of 1 cm by Lassen et al.68 Six patients with migraine with aura were followed with serial measurements of rCBF with the intracarotid Xenon-133 method from the normal state Ponatinib into the aura phase, and in 3 cases into the headache phase12 (see Fig. 5). During the aura phase all patients developed rCBF reduction (oligemia), which only in one case approached critical values. Oligemia medchemexpress gradually spread anteriorly in the course of 15 to 45 minutes (Fig. 5). In 4 cases severe headache occurred concomitantly with oligemia. The paper was concluded by stating that “the results indicate that the vasospastic model of

the migraine attack is too simplistic. Alteration in neuronal function, in the blood–brain barrier (BBB), or in some other brain process is more likely to be the primary event of the attack.”12 CSD of Leão was considered (Lauritzen, personal communication, 2008), but as noted above, at the time, CSD was known to be associated with hyperemia (vide supra)51,69 and therefore contradicted the assumption of CSD being the primary neuronal process underlying the spreading oligemia. The migraine patients in Olesen’s study12 belonged to a series of approximately 250 patients undergoing carotid arteriography for various diagnostic reasons. The carotid catheterization with a catheter placed using the Seldinger technique and angiography most likely induced the migraine aura.

Questions were carried out before and after surgery Results: i)

Questions were carried out before and after surgery. Results: i) Between April 2012 and May 2013, 13 patients received preoperative simulation on the “Liversim”. This system enables us to demonstrate the real-time deformation and resection of the liver. The portal and hepatic veins are easily detectable on the resection line. There was no obvious discrepancy during the resection process; i. e., emergence of branches learn more of the portal vein or hepatic vein, depth and direction of the resection line; between our simulation and the real surgery. ii) 1. Scores about usefulness of the “Liversim” were 9.67±0.71 for the student group (n = 9) and 9.56±0.73 for the surgeon group (n = 9). All respondents

thought that this system was valuable, with no significant differences between the two groups.2. The scores about the portal vein were 7.88±2.7 for the students (n = 8) and 8.67±0.58 for the surgeons (n = 3). The scores about the hepatic vein were 8.0±2.62 for the students (n = 8), and 8.33±0.58

for the surgeons (n = 3). The scores for the surgeons about the portal and hepatic vein were significantly higher than those for the students. It was revealed that students felt difficulty in recognizing the anatomy of the portal and hepatic vein. Conclusion: This novel system may be useful for realizing the hepatic anatomy and operative procedure to young surgeons and students. Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Yukio Oshiro, Tyoichi Miyamoto, Ken Nakayama, Jun Mitani, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi “
“Appendectomy protects BVD-523 against the development of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the relationship between appendectomy and the clinical course of UC is complex, and could be impacted by a number of variables. Data on 2648 UC patients were retrieved from the Inflammatory Bowel Disease registry at Asan Medical Center. This retrospective

cohort study compared the clinical course of UC in 68 patients who received an appendectomy before their UC diagnosis and 2544 patients who did not receive this MCE公司 procedure. A nested case-control study was also conducted to compare the disease course before and after appendectomy in 36 patients who received this surgery after UC diagnosis. To control for potential confounders, 144 matched controls were retrieved from among 2544 non-appendectomized patients In the retrospective cohort study, an appendectomy before UC diagnosis demonstrated no influence on disease extent at diagnosis, rates of medication use, proximal disease extension, or colectomy. The 10- and 20-year probabilities of receiving a colectomy were 12.7% and 20.6%, respectively, in appendectomized patients, in comparison with 8.9% and 16.4%, respectively, in non-appendectomized patients (p = 0.81). According to the nested case-control study, an appendectomy after UC diagnosis did not change the subsequent disease course in terms of medication use, proximal disease extension, or hospital admission rate.

RBV has already been shown to be essential for treatment with tel

RBV has already been shown to be essential for treatment with telaprevir and boceprevir with interferon, and preliminary studies suggest that RBV will augment the response with all-oral therapy for hepatitis C.5, 6 The authors in the INFORM-1 study speculate that SVR could potentially be achieved with 8-12 weeks of antiviral therapy. Finally, because of differing thresholds of resistance in genotype 1a and 1b, future studies will need to determine if one genotype may be more readily suppressed or treated to SVR with all-oral regimens. 17-AAG solubility dmso Host factors such as IP-10 levels and the role of IL-28b genotype will also need to be explored in interferon-free regimens. The authors in this study examined

IP-10 levels, and a recent publication suggested that the combination of IL-28b genotype and IP-10 levels may be a powerful tool to predict SVR with Peg-IFN/RBV.14 In summary, this SCH 900776 nmr landmark study has demonstrated for the first time that the combination of DAA therapies can effectively suppress HCV replication within a 13-day period without Peg-IFN/RBV and provides proof of concept that the combination of DAAs can prevent the emergence of resistance-associated variants over a short treatment period. Moreover, viral suppression was achieved in previous null responder and treatment-naive patients. The final results of therapy with Peg-IFN/RBV will be anticipated eagerly, particularly in previous nonresponders. “
“Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

is complicated by hepatic fibrosis. Hypothesizing that early fibrogenic

signals may originate in cells susceptible to HCV infection, hepatocyte gene expression was analyzed from persons with chronic HCV at different stages of liver fibrosis. Four HCV-infected subjects with precirrhosis liver fibrosis (Ishak fibrosis 3-5) were matched for age, race, and gender to five HCV-infected subjects with no evidence of fibrosis (Ishak fibrosis 0). Hepatocytes from each subject were isolated from liver biopsies using laser capture microdissection. Transcriptome profiling was performed on hepatocyte RNA using hybridization arrays. We found that hepatocytes in precirrhosis fibrosis were depleted for genes involved in small molecule and drug metabolism, especially butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE), a gene involved in the metabolism of drugs of abuse. Differential expression of BCHE was 上海皓元 validated in the same tissues and cross-sectionally in an expanded cohort of 143 HCV-infected individuals. In a longitudinal study, serum BCHE activity was already decreased at study inception in 19 fibrosis progressors compared with 20 fibrosis nonprogressors (P < 0.05). Nonprogressors also had decreased BCHE activity over time compared with initial values, but these evolved a median (range) 8.6 (7.8-11.4) years after the study period inception (P < 0.05). Laser captured portal tracts were enriched for immune related genes when compared with hepatocytes but precirrhosis livers lost this enrichment.

However, the liver was different from skin, gut, and brain in tha

However, the liver was different from skin, gut, and brain in that integrins were often not involved and other

adhesion molecules were implicated. Indeed, anti-adhesion was demonstrated for VAP-1 in hepatic sinusoids in a model of hepatitis.[9] Adhesion molecules such as CD44/hyaluronic acid and Siglec-10/VAP-1 have also been implicated in interactions between leukocytes Selleck Kinase Inhibitor Library and endothelium in liver.[33-36] McDonald et al.[33] have shown that CD44 was responsible for reversible neutrophil adhesion to hyaluronic acid (HA) within liver sinusoids in vivo and the disruption of CD44-HA interactions reduced liver injury in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. The CD44-dependent adhesion was reversible and not replaced by other adhesive mechanisms or physical trapping, suggesting a key role for molecular adhesion in liver sinusoids.[33] Moreover, Siglec-10, a member of the family of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins (Siglecs), was first identified as

a leukocyte surface ligand and a substrate for VAP-1, which is important GPCR Compound Library datasheet in lymphocyte recruitment in liver.[35, 36] These findings are crucial for the development of new antiinflammatory therapy rather than traditional anti-integrin therapy. Herein, we provide further evidence that VAP-1 is a good target to ameliorate the autoimmune-induced hepatic injury by selectively regulating recruitment of CD4 Th2 but not Th1 lymphocytes. We analyzed the effect of anti-VAP-1 therapy for lymphocyte recruitment to the liver using a well-established Con A-induced hepatitis model.[4, 5, 7, 8] Con A treatment caused acute liver injury as assessed by increased serum transaminase level as early as 4 hours (data not shown) after intravenous administration and continued until 24 hours. Con A treatment is not specific for liver and causes injury elsewhere, including lung, where many neutrophils are recruited but anti-VAP-1 was ineffective (Supporting Fig. 4), indicating that VAP-1 does not affect neutrophil recruitment MCE公司 in lung or as previously reported

in liver.[9] VAP-1 functions as both an adhesion molecule and a generator of oxidants. Our data demonstrate that blocking a specific adhesion molecule holds some therapeutic promise, while inhibitors of the mono-oxidase activity showed marginal (25%) benefit. However, inhibiting both functions of VAP-1 reduced Con A-induced inflammation to the greatest extent, suggesting that targeting both functions of VAP-1 could have optimal benefit. The attenuated liver injury in anti-VAP-1-treated mice and VAP-1-deficient mice correlated with reduced CD4+ T cell recruitment and reduced numbers of IL-4 producing T cells. This is in line with the essential role of CD4+ T cells in induction of liver injury derived by Con A but our data point toward a Th2 subset.

Recently, we demonstrated that FVIII knockout (KO) mice had signi

Recently, we demonstrated that FVIII knockout (KO) mice had significantly decreased bone mass and bone strength despite the fact that they did not have haemarthroses. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of bone disease associated with FVIII deficiency. We compared biochemical markers of bone formation and osteoclastogenesis, inflammatory cytokines, as well as static and dynamic histomorphometry of genetically engineered FVIII KO male mice to those of wild-type (WT) controls.

At 20 weeks of age, FVIII KO mice, as well as WT controls, were sacrificed. Serum and bones were obtained at the time of sacrifice to study biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and osteoclastogenesis (receptor

activator of nuclear factor kappa-β and osteoprotegerin), Alvelestat cost levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1α and interferon-β) and to perform static and dynamic histomorphometry of tibia NVP-AUY922 price cancellous bone. There was no difference in the biochemical markers of bone formation or osteoclastogenesis. However, there were differences in the two bone-associated cytokines studied. In addition, histomorphometric examination revealed cancellous osteopenia in FVIII KO mice as evidenced by decreased bone area and trabecular number and increased trabecular separation. Bone formation parameters were normal in FVIII KO mice. In contrast, osteoclast-lined bone perimeter was increased. These data demonstrate that bone disease in FVIII KO mice is due to an increased rate of bone resorption. “
“This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Incidence and prevalence

Clinical presentation Risk factors Analysis of the immune response MCE to factor VIII in mild/moderate hemophilia A Treatment Conclusion References “
“Summary.  The topic of this monograph is liver cancer associated with chronic HCV infection. We start with some background information on chronic HCV infection and its long-term sequelae, one of which is liver cancer. The rest of the article is concerned with liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epidemiology, risk factors, treatment and outcomes are discussed. We focus on those aspects that are of specific interest in people with haemophilia: studies performed in haemophilia populations, the use of invasive diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the outcome of liver transplantation. Throughout the paper, recommendations are given on surveillance for and diagnosis of HCC and on the practical aspects of invasive procedures. These recommendations are based on professional guidelines, other published evidence and the authors’ experience. In general, diagnostic and therapeutic options are the same in persons with and without haemophilia. Hepatitis C is caused by infection with HCV, an RNA flavivirus. In the haemophilia community, HCV was transmitted through clotting factor concentrates.

CASE also showed inhibitory effect on PAI-1 transcriptional activ

CASE also showed inhibitory effect on PAI-1 transcriptional activity. Conclusion:  All these results suggest that CASE exerts anti-HepG2 cell invasion effect by modulating TGF-β/Smad signaling. “
“Interferon-gamma-1b (IFN-γ-1b) improves alpha interferon (IFN-α) inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in replicon system. We described virological response after addition of IFN-γ to a combination of ribavirin/peginterferon (PEG-IFN)-α-2a or α-2b. In this non-comparative, multicenter trial, patients chronically infected by HCV who were nonresponders to a previous treatment by PEG-IFN and ribavirin were restarted on a regimen of PEG-IFN-α-2a (180 μg/week) + ribavirin (1000–1200 mg/day)

for 16 weeks. selleckchem If HCV-RNA decreased less than 2 log10 copies/mL (nonresponders), and if PEG-IFN-α-2a and ribavirin dosages were unchanged while tolerance was good, IFNγ-1b (100 μg three times

per week) was added for the last 32 weeks of treatment. Virological response was evaluated at week 28 (12 weeks after initiation of IFN-γ-1b). Among the 48 patients started on dual therapy, 23 patients (47%) were nonresponders at week 12 and received IFN-γ-1b from week 16 onward. Their mean HCV-RNA (log10 IU/mL) was 6.83 at baseline, 5.81 at week 12, and 5.63 at week 28. No patient reached undetectable HCV-RNA at week 28 (upper bound of 95% confidence interval: 14.8%); none had a decrease > 1 log10 IU/mL. One case of grade 4 neutropenia was reported. Among the Selleckchem BMS 354825 strictly MCE selected nonresponders, IFN-γ-1b (at a dosage of 100 μg thrice a week) in combination with PEG-IFN-α-2a and ribavirin failed to show virological efficacy. “
“Background and Aim:  A treatment strategy for tumors with only venous invasion and characteristics of small rectal carcinoids with metastasis have not been clearly documented. The present study aims to determine the risk

factors for lymph node metastasis and to elucidate characteristics of small tumors with metastasis. Methods:  We investigated a total of 229 patients with rectal carcinoids. The relationship between each clinicopathological variable and the presence of lymph node metastasis was evaluated. Results:  Tumor size (larger than 10 mm), presence of central depression, depth of tumor invasion, lymphatic invasion, and venous invasion were significantly associated with the incidence of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size (odds ratio: 63.3, P < 0.001) and venous invasion (odds ratio: 40.9, P < 0.001) were independently predictive of lymph node metastasis. In 204 patients with small (no larger than 10 mm) tumors, 10 patients had lymph node metastasis. All 10 tumors had low proliferation values indicated by mitosis and Ki-67 index. Multivariate analysis for the 204 patients revealed that only venous invasion was independently associated with metastasis (odds ratio: 40.1, P < 0.001). Five-year disease free survival rates of the total patients with metastasis and without metastasis were 81.

Among 59 patients with an applicable CAP simultaneous to ST, Spea

Among 59 patients with an applicable CAP simultaneous to ST, Spearman’s correlation coefficient was r=0.37, p=0.03.sSupposed FP-LSM patients had also higher rates of SS by CAP(40%vs15%,p=0.04) compared

to non- FP-LSM. Patients with SS as per CAP, had higher median LSM[6.5(4.4-13.6)vs 5.7(3.2-8.7)kPa,p=0.01].The high failure rate (35%) of the M probe that selleck chemicals llc measures concomitantly the CAP, limited the multi-variate analysis for CAP in this population. Conclusion: In type-2 diabetic patients, the presence of severe steatosis presumed by SteatoTest was independently associated to the overestima-tion of liver fibrosis by liver stiffness Ceritinib research buy measurement. Disclosures: Yen Ngo – Employment: BioPredictive Mona Munteanu – Employment: Biopredictive Vlad Ratziu – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: GalMed, Abbott, Genfit, Enterome, Gilead; Consulting: Astellas, Axcan, Pfizer, Sanofi-Synthelabo, Genen-tech, Nycomed Agnes Hartemann-Heurtier – Consulting: Sanofi-Aventis, Pfizer; Grant/Research Support: Lilly Thierry Poynard – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: MSD; Speaking and Teaching: BMS; Stock Shareholder: BioPredictive The following people have nothing to disclose: Hugo Perazzo, Noemi Seurat, Elena Luckina,

Fanny Rutka, Marion Couteau, Sophie Jacqueminet, Denis Mon-neret, Françoise Imbert-Bismut Background/Aims: Diabetes is associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and disease progression in chronic liver disease but factors associated with diabetes in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) living in North America (NA) have not been previously studied. Therefore, we set out to determine the rates and factors predictive 上海皓元 of diabetes and impaired fasting

glucose (IFG) in a large multi-ethnic NA cohort of patients infected with HBV. Methods: HBsAg+ adults without liver decompensation, HCC, liver transplant, HIV or current antiviral therapy from 21 US/Canada centers were enrolled. Those with known diabetes or fasting glucose data were included in the analysis. Diabetes was defined by history/medications or fasting glucose >126 mg/dL and IFG as fasting glucose 110-125 mg/dL. Overweight/obese was defined by race-adjusted BMI. Results: 900 patients were included in the analysis: median age 43 years, 51% male, 71% Asian (14% black, 11% white), 81% born outside US/Canada (30% migrated >20 yrs ago). Most whites were born in NA, while 66% of blacks, and 92% of Asians were born in Africa and Asia, respectively. Median BMI (Kg/m2) was 27 in whites, 28 in blacks, 23 in Asians. 27% were HBeAg+, 20% had HBV DNA >10Λ7 IU/mL and 4% had cirrhosis. 70 (8%) patients had IFG and 112 (12%) had diabetes.

Our findings indicate that lung microenvironment is unique in tha

Our findings indicate that lung microenvironment is unique in that it suppresses the expression of CEA by CRC cells forming neoplastic glands. In addition, lung microenvironment promotes nuclear localization of β-catenin, suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway is relatively active highly in CRC metastasized to lung, when compared with liver or colon. “
“Background and Aim:  Although larger biopsies sample

had been recommended for the study of non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment, few studies with larger biopsies for transient elastography (TE) detecting liver fibrosis had been reported. The present study tries to re-evaluate the performance of TE for detecting SCH727965 advanced fibrosis (≥F3) with larger biopsies in patients with compensated chronic hepatitis B. Methods:  A total of 375 compensated patients were analyzed, who had undergone liver biopsy, reliable

TE and routine blood tests. Results:  The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was influenced by liver biopsy sample: 0.873 (95% confidence interval 0.838–0.909) in total patients, 0.880 (0.844–0.917) in length ≥ 15 mm, 0.897 (0.863–0.932) in length ≥ 20 mm and 0.911 (0.874–0.949) in length ≥ 25 mm. In patients with sample length ≥ 20 mm, the cutoffs to exclude and confirm advanced fibrosis were 7.1 kPa and 12.7 kPa, respectively. Stratified by alanine aminotransferase of two times the upper limit of normal (ALT 2 × ULN), transient elastography detecting advanced Staurosporine fibrosis with the most efficiency by 72.5% of patients obviated from liver biopsy. In patients with normal bilirubin and ALT < 2 × ULN, the area was 0.921 (0.860–0.982), and cutoffs for excluding and confirming diagnosis were 7.4 kPa and 10.6 kPa, respectively; 80%

of patients could be classified with or without advanced fibrosis (AF). In patients with normal bilirubin and ALT ≥ 2 × ULN, the corresponding numbers were 0.885 (0.824–0.947), 7.5 kPa, 12.7 kPa and 79.2%, respectively. Conclusions:  Inadequate sample 上海皓元 study would underestimate the efficiency of TE on detecting advanced fibrosis. With ALT 2 × ULN stratified cutoffs, TE determined nearly 80% of patients with normal bilirubin as AF or non-AF and obviated them from liver biopsies. “
“Aim:  The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of 1-O-hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone (HTHQ), a synthesized vitamin E derivative, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhosis. Methods:  Rats were treated with hypodermic injections of CCl4 twice a week to induce the hepatic cirrhosis, and given drinking water containing HTHQ or solvent. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were performed to evaluate the effects of HTHQ on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

006) Conclusion: It is common that Chinese

PBC patients

006). Conclusion: It is common that Chinese

PBC patients are anxious or depressive, but the relationships between fatigue and psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression, remain unclear. Key Word(s): 1. PBC; 2. depression; 3. anxiety; 4. HADS; Presenting Author: JUAN WU Additional Authors: NAIZHONG HU Corresponding Author: NAIZHONG HU Affiliations: he First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Objective: To explore the clinical and prognostic impact of diabetes on decompensated cirrhosis, and clinical characteristics and glucose metabolism indicators of hepatogenous diabetes. Methods: Collected clinical data of 246 cases decompensated cirrhosis, attending the Department of Gastroenterology in our hospital from November 2010 to April 2012. According to diagnostic criteria of diabetes, divide them into liver cirrhosis combining with diabetic group (LC-DM) and non-diabetic group (LC). BYL719 solubility dmso Diabetic group lined OGTT and insulin C-peptide release test, then divided them into hepatogenic diabetic selleck chemicals group (HD) and type

2 diabetes group (T2DM) according to the inclusion criteria of hepatogenous diabetes. All patients were followed until death or study termination. Contrast analysis the clinical, prognosis and indicators of glucose metabolism of every group. Results: (1) The incidence of liver cirrhosis with diabetes was 29.3%(72/246), including HD 45.8%(33/72), and T2DM 54.2%(39/72). Follow-up rate was 17.9%(44/246), and mortality was 26.4%(19/72) in patients with diabetes. (2) LC-DM group compared with LC group, hospitalization days were longer (P = 0.018), the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous peritonitis 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 were higher (P < 0.05), Child-Pugh score and the mortality rate were significantly

higher than without diabetes group (P < 0.05). (3) OGTT and insulin C-peptide releasing test showed that HD group had hyperinsulinemia, C-peptide secretion curve was normal, and T2DM group had insulin hyposecretion, C peptide secretion curve flat. There were no statistically significant differences in complications, hospitalization days, liver function classification and mortality in HD and T2DM group (P > 0.05). (4) Univariate analysis showed that: age ≥60 years old, albumin <28 g/L, diabetes and Child-Pugh C level were infulence factors of died of liver cirrhosis patients. Multiple factors logistic regression analysis showed that only Child-Pugh C level was an independent predictor of death (OR = 3.056, P = 0.013). Conclusion: The patients of cirrhosis and diabetes have a poor liver function, high rate of cirrhosis complications and a high mortality rate. Child-Pugh C level is an independent predictor of death of liver cirrhosis. Indicators of glucose metabolism are meaningful, but there is no significant difference in clinical outcome and prognosis of cirrhosis patients between HD and T2DM. Key Word(s): 1. Liver cirrhosis; 2.

There was a statistically significant difference between the Ni-C

There was a statistically significant difference between the Ni-Cr control subgroup and the other two bleached subgroups, while there was no difference between the two bleached subgroups. Results also showed that increasing the concentration of bleaching agents increased the surface roughness of all the tested alloys. There was a statistical difference between the Ni-Cr alloy and the other two alloys in all tested subgroups except the in-office bleached subgroup, for which no difference between the surface roughness of the Ni-Cr alloy and the Co-Cr-Ti alloy was found. Scanning electron

microscopic examination revealed surface deteriorations in the two bleached subgroups for all tested ceramometallic alloys. Conclusion: Surface topographic alterations occurred as a result of the application of bleaching agents. These alterations increased with the increase of the carbamide peroxide concentration. “
“Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of different bar materials on stress distribution in an overdenture-retaining bar system with a vertical misfit between implant and bar framework. Materials and Methods: A three-dimentional finite element model was created including two titanium implants and a bar framework placed in the anterior part of a severely reabsorbed jaw. The model set was exported to mechanical simulation software, where displacement was applied to simulate the screw torque limited by 100-μm vertical misfit. Four bar materials

(gold alloy, silver-palladium FK866 cost alloy, commercially pure titanium, cobalt-chromium alloy) were simulated in the analysis. Data were qualitatively evaluated using Von Mises stress given by the software. Results: The models showed stress concentration in cortical bone corresponding to the cervical part of the implant, and in cancellous bone corresponding to the apical part of the implant; however, in these regions few changes were observed in the levels of stress on the different bar materials analyzed. In the bar framework, screw, and implant, considerable increase in stress was observed when the elastic modulus of the bar material was increased. Conclusions: The different materials

of the overdenture-retaining bar did not present considerable influence on the stress levels in the periimplant bone tissue, while the mechanical components of the system were more sensitive to the material 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 stiffness. “
“Purpose: This study assessed masticatory efficiency and duration of the masticatory cycle in 14 asymptomatic patients with severe bone resorption. All patients had worn complete dentures for over 10 years. Recall visits were scheduled at 5 months and 1 year after receiving new dentures. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients were evaluated in this study. The Research Diagnostic Criteria questionnaire and tests of the efficiency and duration of the masticatory cycle were performed with artificial food before, 5 months after, and 1 year after new dentures were delivered.