4 and 5 It is described that pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, regulate the sequential recruitment of leukocytes and are frequently observed in the tumour microenvironment6 which stimulate the growth and survival of malignant cells.7 Although the role of cytokines in tumour biology has been extensively studied, the literature is still controversial about their effects on cancer biology.8 The mediators and cellular effectors of inflammation are important components of the local tumour environment. In some types of cancer, inflammatory conditions are present before a malignant
check details change occurs, whilst in other types of cancer, an oncogenic change induces an inflammatory microenvironment that promotes the development of tumors.9 The mechanisms of cytokines action in carcinogenesis are of great importance, due
to their involvement in tumour survival. Thus, the inhibition of pro-tumorigenic cytokine may offer an alternative target aimed at the blockage of tumour progression.10 Interleukins (IL)-4, IL-6 and IL-10 GSK J4 datasheet are multifunctional cytokines involved in adaptative and innate immunity cell mediators. The IL-10 is an immunosuppressive molecule secreted by tumours with anti-inflammatory action.11 The role of IL-10 production within the tumour microenvironment still remains controversial. It is debated that IL-10 can favour tumour growth in vitro by stimulating cell proliferation and inhibiting cell apoptosis, 1 which is correlated with poor survival of some cancer patients. 12 and 13 On the other hand, the IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which modulates both the innate and adaptative immune response. 14 IL-6 has been shown to function as a growth factor
in several human tumors 15, 16, 17 and 18 and plays an important role in regulating apoptosis in many cell types. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients produce increased release of IL-6 into Inositol monophosphatase 1 saliva and that IL-6 contributes to carcinogenesis of oral mucosa or maintenance of the condition in OSCC. 19 Also, it is suggested that IL-6 inactivates p53 tumour suppressor gene. 20 In addition, IL-4 is a tumour-promoting molecule which regulates local immune response, usually elevated in human cancer patients. 21 Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the expression of IL-4, IL6 and, IL-10 in an in vitro model of tumorigenesis, 22 which mimics a situation where in situ neoplastic cells of oral carcinoma, are surrounded by benign myoepithelial cells from pleomorphic adenoma in order to correlate the cancer cell growth and the role of these cytokines in regulating the neoplastic process.