6 years QOL was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months post-diagnosis,

6 years. QOL was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months post-diagnosis, using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Breast (FACT-B+4) questionnaire. Raw scores for the FACT-B+4 and subscales were computed and individuals were categorized according to whether QOL declined, remained stable or improved between 6 and

18 months. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards survival methods were used to estimate OS and its associations with QOL. Logistic regression models identified factors associated with QOL decline.

Results: Within FACT-B+4 subscales, between 10% and 23% of women showed declines in QOL. Following adjustment for established prognostic factors, emotional well-being and FACT-B+4 scores at 6 months post-diagnosis were associated with OS (p < 0.05). Declines in physical (p < 0.01) or functional (p = 0.02) well-being this website between 6 and 18 months post-diagnosis were also associated significantly with OS. Receiving multiple forms of adjuvant treatment, a perception of not handling stress well and reporting Nutlin-3 cell line one or more other major life events at 6 months post-diagnosis were factors

associated with declines in QOL in multivariable analyses.

Conclusions: Interventions targeted at preventing QOL declines may ultimately improve quantity as well as quality of life following breast cancer. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The Arabidopsis transcription factor CRABS CLAW (CRC) is a major determinant of carpel growth and fusion, and, in concert with other redundantly acting genes, of floral meristem termination. Its rice ortholog, however, has additional functions in specifying carpel organ identity. We were interested in VX 770 understanding the history of gene function modulation of CRC-like genes during angiosperm evolution. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of EcCRC, the Californica poppy (Eschscholzia californica) CRC ortholog. The downregulation of EcCRC by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) produces additional

organ whorls that develop exclusively into gynoecia, resulting in a reiteration of the fourth whorl. Additionally, defects in carpel polarity and ovule initiation are apparent, and the observed phenotype is restricted to the gynoecium. Our results further show that the history of CRC-like genes during angiosperm evolution is characterized by gains of function, independent of duplication processes in this gene subfamily. Moreover, our data indicate that the ancestral angiosperm CRC-like gene was involved in floral meristem termination and the promotion of abaxial cell fate in the gynoecium, and that in the lineage leading to Arabidopsis, additional genes have been recruited to adopt some of these functions, resulting in a high degree of redundancy.

001), and G2677T/A (p = 0 014) were associated with neurotoxiciti

001), and G2677T/A (p = 0.014) were associated with neurotoxicities. The CC genotype

at ABCB1 C1236T was associated with it, but not significantly so (p = 0.07), adjusted for age, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. In the FK506 patient group (n = 33), CYP3A5 A6986G (p < 0.001), and ABCB1 C1236T (p = 0.002) were associated with neurotoxicity. At least one A allele at CYP3A5 A6986G (expressor genotype) was strongly associated with it according to logistic regression analysis (p = 0.01; OR, 8.5; 95% CI, 1.4-51.4).


The polymorphisms in CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genes were associated with CNI-related neurotoxicity. This outcome is probably because of CYP3A5 or selleck P-gp functions or metabolites of CNIs.”
“Staphylococcus aureus is a medically important pathogen that is often acquired from hospital settings (nosocomial) as well as from the community (community acquired). Bacteria that reside in anterior nares of hosts serve as reservoirs for both the spread of the pathogen and predispose the host to subsequent infections, Here, we will review the extent and variability of nasal carriage,

and the possible causative factors – both from the host and the bacterium. We also discuss the existing molecular typing techniques used for studying variations among strains of MS-275 clinical trial S. aureus. Finally, we discuss the possible areas of studies that are open in this field. Given the pathogen’s importance in healthcare setting, such areas of study vary vastly, from fundamental research to applied medical care and use of alternative medical regimes for control of S. aureus nasal carriage. Unsurprisingly, our conclusions also underscore the importance of making policy decisions based on local ethnic and socioeconomic population structure.”
“The effect of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on light trapping is evaluated by characterizing Crenolanib solar cell specimens with both superstrate (p-i-n) and substrate (n-i-p) configurations that have a variety of surface morphologies including

intentionally polished flat surfaces. It is demonstrated that the front texture enhances light absorption and external quantum efficiency from the visible region to the near-infrared region, while the rear texture increases these properties only at wavelengths longer than around 600 nm. The photocurrent enhancement by the rear texture is comparable or superior to that by the front texture, especially in n-i-p solar cells with a thin transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on the front surface. Irrespective of the cell configuration, parasitic absorption loss in solar cells is increased by the textures. Loss analyses show that the absorption loss at textured back-surface reflectors (BSRs) plays a dominant role in n-i-p solar cells and is obviously affected by the localized surface plasmon absorption induced by the Ag reflector with microroughness on its surface.

“Background: Multidetector computed tomographic angiograph

“Background: Multidetector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) is increasingly being used

for the assessment of extremity vascular injury. However, to date, there are only retrospective series and a single small prospective study evaluating its efficacy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the ability of MDCTA to detect arterial injury in the injured upper AZD6244 ic50 and lower extremities.

Methods: After institutional review board approval, all trauma patients aged 16 years or older admitted to a Level I trauma center who sustained extremity trauma and underwent initial evaluation with a 64-channel MDCTA from March 2009 to June 2010 were prospectively enrolled. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCTA were tested against an aggregate gold standard of operative intervention, conventional angiography, and clinical follow-up.

Results: During the

20-month study period, 635 patients with extremity trauma underwent a structured clinical examination. Hard signs of vascular injury was observed in 5.5% of patients with a 97.1% incidence of clinically significant injury requiring operative www.selleckchem.com/products/poziotinib-hm781-36b.html intervention. Eighty-three percent of patients had no signs of vascular injury with no missed injuries detected during follow-up. Eighty-nine MDCTAs were performed in the remaining 73 patients (11.5%) with soft signs. The mechanism of injury was penetrating in 69.9% (42 gunshot wound, 5 stab wound, and 4 shotgun). There were 24 positive studies, 23 of which were confirmed at operation (5 brachial artery injuries, 2 radial, 1 ulnar, 1 external iliac, 2 common femoral, 5 proximal superficial femoral, 2 distal superficial femoral, 4 popliteal, and 1 posterior tibial artery injury).

A left posterior tibial artery occlusion was managed nonoperatively. CCI-779 research buy There were 58 negative studies with clinical follow-up available in 100%, for a mean of 10.6 days +/- 11.7 days (median, 6 days; range, 1-41 days). MDCTA was nondiagnostic in seven patients (9.6%), five secondary to artifact from retained missile fragments (3 shotgun and 2 gunshot wound), and two secondary to technical errors in reformatting. In the absence of artifact, MDCTA achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in detecting all clinically significant arterial injuries.

Conclusions: Physical examination is critical in the decision-making process for the injured extremity and can accurately reduce unnecessary imaging. If imaging is required, MDCTA is a sensitive and a specific noninvasive modality for arterial evaluation and may replace conventional angiography as the diagnostic modality of choice for the evaluation of the acutely injured extremity.”
“Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) after its exposure to a range of alkaline environments during hydration.

“Biologically detailed single neuron and network models ar

“Biologically detailed single neuron and network models are important for understanding how ion channels, synapses and anatomical connectivity underlie the complex electrical behavior of the brain. While neuronal simulators such as NEURON, GENESIS, MOOSE, NEST, and PSICS facilitate the development of these data-driven neuronal models, the specialized languages they employ are generally not interoperable, limiting model accessibility and

preventing reuse of model components and cross-simulator validation. To overcome these problems we have used an Open Source software approach to develop NeuroML, a neuronal model description language based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). This enables these detailed models and their components to be defined in a standalone form, allowing LCL161 them to be used across multiple simulators and archived in a standardized format. Here we describe the structure of NeuroML and demonstrate its scope by converting into NeuroML models of a number of different voltage-and ligand-gated conductances, models of electrical coupling, synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity, together with morphologically detailed models of individual neurons. We have also used these NeuroML-based components to develop an highly detailed cortical

network model. NeuroML-based NCT-501 ic50 model descriptions were validated by demonstrating similar model behavior across five independently developed simulators. Although our results confirm that simulations run on different simulators converge, they reveal limits to model interoperability, by showing that for some models convergence only occurs at high levels of spatial and temporal discretisation, when the

computational overhead is high. Our development of NeuroML as a common description language for biophysically detailed neuronal and network models enables interoperability across multiple simulation environments, thereby improving model transparency, accessibility Salubrinal research buy and reuse in computational neuroscience.”
“Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of indium-doped ZnO nanorods grown by vapor transport method are investigated. At low temperatures, two peaks at 3.294 and 3.221 eV are observed. With the temperature increasing, these peaks shift to 3.315 and 3.238 eV, respectively. This is the characteristic of the transformation from donor-acceptor pair recombination to free electron-to-neutral acceptor (eA(0)) transition. Two acceptors are identified with energy levels of similar to 120 and similar to 200 meV (labeled A1 and A2). The nanorods show yellow emission around 2.1 eV at 8 K, which blueshifts to 2.3 eV at room temperature. From the thermal quenching analysis, it is suggested that the acceptor involved in the yellow emission is the same as A2. A defect level close to A1 is also observed in the PL-excitation spectrum.

At the 1-year follow-up, complications were not statistically dif

At the 1-year follow-up, complications were not statistically different find more across the three groups except for pain in the thigh, which was more common in the TVT-O group. The overall efficacy and cure rate were similar between the TVT and TVT-O groups, but were significantly lower in the TVT-Secur group.

Conclusions A comparison of the three procedures shows that TVT-O is easy to operate and is as safe as TVT-Secur, and it has similar long-term efficacy to TVT, though, as one of the third-generation mid-urethral tension-free tapes, TVT-Secur is still being evaluated. Basing on the outcome of our study, it had rare complications but unsatisfactory

efficacy, and we suggest that TVT-Secur is not fit for severe cases. However, observation and comparison of these groups in a larger sample size on a longer term are needed.”
“Cardiac complications of the pediatric patients with acute leukemia are common. Most of the cardiac complications may be due to chemotherapeutics such as antracyclins, besides anemia, infections, or direct leukemic infiltrations of the heart. It is reported that leukemic infiltration is frequent in the postmortem examination of the myocardium and pericardium. However, at the antemortem

examination, pericardial involvement is rare and there is no myocardial involvement reported at the time of diagnosis ISRIB order in patients with acute leukemia in the English literature. Here, the authors report an adolescent with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had myocardial infiltration at the time of diagnosis.”
“Salmonella enterica causes a range of life-threatening diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Current treatments for S. enterica infections are not sufficiently effective, and there is a need to develop new vaccines and

therapeutics. GSK J4 solubility dmso An understanding of how S. enterica spreads in tissues has very important implications for targeting bacteria with vaccine-induced immune responses and antimicrobial drugs. Development of new control strategies would benefit from a more sophisticated evaluation of bacterial location, spatiotemporal patterns of spread and distribution in the tissues, and sites of microbial persistence. We review here recent studies of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infections in mice, an established model of systemic typhoid fever in humans, which suggest that continuous bacterial spread to new infection foci and host phagocytes is an essential trait in the virulence of S. enterica during systemic infections. We further highlight how infections within host tissues are truly heterogeneous processes despite the fact that they are caused by the expansion of a genetically homogeneous microbial population. We conclude by discussing how understanding the within-host quantitative, spatial and temporal dynamics of S. enterica infections might aid the development of novel targeted preventative measures and drug regimens.

The promoter of MYB15 was active in not only vegetative and repro

The promoter of MYB15 was active in not only vegetative and reproductive organs but also the guard cells of stomata. Its transcript level was substantially upregulated by ABA, drought or salt treatments. Saracatinib nmr Compared with wild type

(WT) control, MYB15 overexpression lines were hypersensitive to ABA in germination assays, more susceptible to ABA-elicited inhibition of root elongation, and more sensitive to ABA-induced stomatal closure. In line with the above findings, the transcript levels of ABA biosynthesis (ABA1, ABA2), signaling (ABI3), and responsive genes (AtADH1, RD22, RD29B, AtEM6) were generally higher in MYB15 overexpression seedlings than in WT controls after treatment with ABA. MYB15 overexpression lines displayed improved survival and reduced water loss rates than WT control under water deficiency conditions. These overexpression lines also displayed higher tolerance to NaCl stress. Collectively, our data suggest that overexpression of MYB15 improves drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis possibly by enhancing the expression levels of the genes involved in ABA biosynthesis and signaling, and those encoding

the stress-protective proteins.”
“Background: Cam deformities cause femoroacetabular impingement and damage the acetabular labral-chondral complex. The aims of this study were to investigate the potential of delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) to detect cartilage disease in asymptomatic hips with cam selleckchem deformities compared with morphologically normal hips, establish whether dGEMRIC could identify advanced disease in hips with positive clinical findings, and establish whether cartilage damage correlated with the severity of the cam deformity.

Methods: Subjects were recruited from a prospective study of individuals with a family history of osteoarthritis ASP2215 inhibitor and their spouses who served as control subjects. Their symptoms and impingement test results were recorded. Asymptomatic hips with

normal radiographic joint-space width were placed in a subgroup according to the presence of a cam deformity and the impingement test result. dGEMRIC was performed on a 3-T system, studying two regions of interest: the anterosuperior aspect of the acetabular cartilage (T1(acet)) and the total femoral and acetabular cartilage (T1(total)). The ratio T1(acet)/T1(total) gave the relative glycosaminoglycan content in the anterosuperior aspect of the acetabular cartilage. The cohort was placed in subgroups by joint morphology, impingement test status, and genetic predisposition; the mean T1 scores were compared, and the alpha angle and T1 were correlated.

Results: Of thirty-two subjects (mean age, fifty-two years), nineteen had cam deformities. Hips with a cam deformity had reduced acetabular glycosaminoglycan content compared with normal hips (mean T1(acet)/T(1total), 0.949 and 1.093, respectively; p = 0.0008).

Ranging from Greek mythology to the Sixties, this contribution an

Ranging from Greek mythology to the Sixties, this contribution analyses

the social, scientific and anthropological reasons that led to the desertion of the delivery vertical position in favour of the lying down one.”
“A fungal strain named YLF-14 was isolated from the leaf of Altingia yunnunensis. Based on the sequence at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the strain was identified as an Aspergillus sp.. A new sesquiterpene 5 beta,8a beta-dimethyl-3,4,4a beta,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene-1,2,5 alpha-trimethanol (1) and a known compound 12-N-methylcyclo-(L-tryptophyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2) were isolated from the culture of this strain. Bioassay experiments showed that the two compounds had no obvious effect SB273005 selleck chemicals on the growth of tested bacteria and nematodes.”
“Ethylacetate and butanol fractions of leaf extracts (OLE) showed the higher contents of total phenolic compounds than hexane and water fractions. Oleuropein contents

were 4.21 +/- 0.57, 3.92 +/- 0.43, 0.32 +/- 0.03, 5.76 +/- 0.32, and 32.47 +/- 0.25 mg/100 g for ethanol extract, and hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol fraction, respectively. Treatment of ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiated cells with 3 OLEs prepared by using ethylacetate and butanol at concentrations 0.001, 0.005, and 0.01% respectively showed significant recover), of cell viabilities. Treatment of dexametason 1 mM reduced tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha secretion by about 40%. UVB irradiated immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells were treated with 3 different OLEs at the same concentrations. Ethylacetate fraction showed the strongest inhibition activity with respect of reduction of the elevated TNF-alpha. Cytotoxicity

of OLEs on the B16-F1 cells was evaluated through thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Ethylacetate fraction has no cytotoxicity in the range of 0.005-0.01%. A slight cytotoxicity was observed at the concentration of 0.1% butanol fraction of OLE that caused 10% decrease in cell viability.”
“Objective: Human Cytomegalovirus Rho inhibitor (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the most frequent viral cause of intrauterine infection and responsible for various cerebral and other ultrasound abnormalities of the fetus. It is the leading infectious cause of mental retardation and sensorineural deafness in affected newborns and infants.

We present three cases of primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy and demonstrate three different scenarios of the disease with regard to clinical outcome and therapy options. We first report on CMV related phospho-and glycoprotein-specific antibody reactivities in amnion fluid that have not been reported earlier in literature.

Case presentation: Case 1: A 33-year-old Gravida II Para I was referred for primary CMV infection at 15 weeks gestation presenting with a history of fever.

“The objective of this study was to describe the all-cause

“The objective of this study was to describe the all-cause mortality of

participants in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort compared to the Swiss general population. Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection attending secondary and tertiary care centres in Switzerland. One thousand six hundred and forty-five patients with HCV infection were followed up for a mean of over 2 years. We calculated all-cause standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using age, sex and calendar year-specific Swiss all-cause mortality rates. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to model the variability of SMR by cirrhotic status, HCV genotype, infection with hepatitis B virus or HIV, injection drug use and alcohol intake. Sixty-one deaths were recorded out of 1645 participants. The crude all-cause SMR was 4.5 (95% CI: GSK1838705A manufacturer 3.5-5.8). S3I-201 nmr Patients co-infected with HIV had a crude SMR of 20 (95% CI: 11.1-36.1). The SMR of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.63-2.03) for patients who were not cirrhotic, not infected

with HBV or HIV, did not inject drugs, were not heavy alcohol consumers (< 40 g/day) and were not genotype 3, indicated no strong evidence of excess mortality. We found little evidence of excess mortality in hepatitis C infected patients who were not cirrhotic, in the absence of selected risk factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of providing appropriate preventive advice, such as counselling to avoid alcohol intake, in those infected with STAT inhibitor HCV.”
“The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus

globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC50 at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction and objectives. Percutaneous coronary intervention for ostial lesions of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) remains a complex procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a method of treatment that we have termed the floating-stent approach.

Methods. The study involved 71 patients with ostial LAD lesions who underwent implantation of a drug-eluting stent in the LAD, which totally or partially covered the ostium of the circumflex artery. No further interventions were planned.

Serial liver biopsies available for 12 of these patients were sta

Serial liver biopsies available for 12 of these patients were stained for MxA protein Selleck ACY-738 and scored using a semi-quantitative approach. Hepatocellular MxA protein levels were significantly up-regulated (p = 0.025) in recurrent HCV disease in comparison to ACR.

In biopsies that showed histological changes consistent with recurrent HCV disease, strong hepatocellular MxA staining was present in 14/18 (78%). In the liver biopsies with histological evidence of ACR, strong MxA hepatocellular staining was present in only three of 10 (30%). Thus, assessment of hepatocellular MxA protein expression can contribute to the differential diagnosis of ACR and recurrent HCV disease following liver transplantation. In conclusion, analysis of intrahepatic MxA levels has the potential to reduce the inappropriate use with high-dose pulsing of steroids post-operatively.”
“Objective-To determine the distribution and clinical outcome of ocular lesions in snakes.

Design-Retrospective case series.

Animals-67 snakes with ocular lesions.

Procedures-Signalment, lesion duration, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome were recorded for all snakes with ocular lesions that were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1985 to 2010.

Results-71 ocular lesions were detected in 67 of 508 (13%) snakes examined. Affected snakes were of the families Boidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae,

and Viperidae. The distribution of ocular Bcl-2 phosphorylation lesions did not vary by taxonomic family, age, or sex; however, snakes from the

genus Epicrates with ocular lesions were overrepresented in the population. The most commonly diagnosed ocular lesions were retained spectacle (n = 41), pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess (13), trauma (8), and cataracts (4). Pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess developed more frequently Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor in Colubridae than in non-Colubridae snakes. Of the 16 snakes with retained spectacles for which data were available, the lesion recurred once in 4 snakes and multiple times in 5 snakes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that retained spectacle was the most common ocular lesion diagnosed in snakes. Compared with other snakes with ocular lesions, snakes of the genus Epicrates had a higher than expected frequency of ocular lesions in general and snakes of the family Colubridae had a higher than expected frequency of pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess.”
“Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a new method for simultaneous wastewater treatment and biological electricity generation. In this study, an air-cathode MFC with membrane electrode assembly was operated over four batch cycles (a total period of 140 d) and results indicated that starch processing wastewater containing 4852 mg/l of chemical oxygen demand could be used as substrate to produce electricity with this MFC. Maximum voltage output and power density of 490.8 mV and 239.4 mW/m(2) (a current density of 893.

In addition, participants were invited to fill in a questionnaire

In addition, participants were invited to fill in a questionnaire on the place of RDTs in the diagnostic strategy of malaria.

Results: A total of 128/133 (96.2%) of clinical laboratories using RDTs participated. Six three-band and one four-band RDT brands were used. Analytical errors were rare and included (i) not recognizing invalid RDT results (1.6%) and (ii) missing the diagnosis

of Plasmodium falciparum (0.8%). Minor errors were related to RDT test result interpretation and included (i) reporting “”RDT positive”" without species identification in the case of P. falciparum and non-falciparum species (16.9% and 6.5% respectively) and (ii) adding incorrect comments to the report (3.2%). Some of these errors

were related to incorrect RDT package insert instructions such as (i) not reporting the possibility of mixed species infection in the case selleck inhibitor of P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax (35.5% and 18.5% respectively) and (ii) the interpretation of P. vivax instead of non-falciparum species at the presence of a pan-species antigen line (4.0%). According to the questionnaire, 48.8% selleck screening library of participants processed <= 20 requests for malaria diagnosis in 2009. During opening hours, 93.6% of 125 participants used RDTs as an adjunct to microscopy but outside opening hours, nearly one third of 113 participants relied on RDTs as the primary (4.4%) or the single tool (25.7%) for malaria diagnosis.

Conclusion: In this non-endemic setting, errors in RDT performance were mainly Ulixertinib related to RDT test line interpretations, partly due to incorrect package insert instructions. The reliance on RDTs as the primary

or the single tool for the diagnosis of malaria outside opening hours is of concern and should be avoided.”
“Senescence represents the last phase of petal development during which macromolecules and organelles are degraded and nutrients are recycled to developing tissues. To understand better the post-transcriptional changes regulating petal senescence, a proteomic approach was used to profile protein changes during the senescence of Petuniaxhybrida ‘Mitchell Diploid’ corollas. Total soluble proteins were extracted from unpollinated petunia corollas at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after flower opening and at 24, 48, and 72 h after pollination. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in non-senescing (unpollinated) and senescing (pollinated) corollas, and image analysis was used to determine which proteins were up- or down-regulated by the experimentally determined cut-off of 2.1-fold for P < 0.05. One hundred and thirty-three differentially expressed protein spots were selected for sequencing. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the identity of these proteins.