Hygrophoroideae tribe Chrysomphalineae. Our 4-gene backbone analyses, however, show strong support for placing Cantharellula in subf. Lichenomphalioideae rather than Hygrophoroideae. Nevertheless, subfamilies Lichenomphalioideae and Hygrophoroideae, are in adjacent clades, so the appearance of similar hymenial architecture in both clades suggests a possible homologous origin. Fig. 20 Subf. Lichenomphalioideae, tribe Cantharelluleae, Pseudoarmillariella ectypoides lamellar cross section (DJL05, North
Carolina, Kinase Inhibitor Library order Great Smoky Mt. National Park, USA). Scale bar = 20 μm Fig. 21 Subf. Lichenomphalioideae, tribe Cantharelluleae, Cantharellula umbonata lamellar cross section (RDY-1366, R. Youst, California, USA). Scale bar = 20 μm Tribe Cantharelluleae is the only group retained in the Hygrophoraceae with amyloid spores. Neohygrophorus angelesianus check details (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) Singer (= Hygrophorus subg. Pseudohygrophorus A.H. Sm. & Hesler) is shown as sister to Tribe Clitocybeae (Tricholomataceae) in a multigene Supermatrix analysis by Matheny
et al. (2006), sister to the type of Pseudoomphalina, P. kalchbrenneri, (in the Tricholomataceae), in our 4-gene backbone analyses (100 % MLBS; 1.0 BPP), and sister to Pseudoomphalina felloides in previous Supermatrix (Lodge et al. 2006) and LSU analyses (Moncalvo et al. 2002; 70 % MPBS). Another species with amyloid spores, Hygrophorus metapodius old (Fr.) Fr. [≡Camarophyllus metapodius (Fr.) Wünsche, ≡Hygrocybe metapodia (Fr.) M.M. Moser, ≡Neohygrocybe metapodia (Fr.) Herink], was also transferred to the Tricholomataceae and recombined in gen. Porpoloma by Singer (1973). Pseudoarmillariella ectypoides has been
variously placed in Clitocybe (Saccardo 1887), Clitocybula (Raithelhuber 1980) and Omphalina (Bigelow 1982), while Cantharellula has been placed in Cantharellus (Persoon 1794), and Hygrophoropsis (Kühner and Romagnesi 1953). Singer (1942; 1948; 1986) recognized the close Selleck AZD0156 relationship between Cantharellula umbonata and Pseudoarmillariella ectypoides, but placed them together with other amyloid spored genera in the Tricholomataceae, tribe Leucopaxilleae. Singer transferred Peck’s Agaricus ectypoides to Cantharellula in 1942, erected subg. Pseudoarmillariella Sing. in 1948 for C. umbonata and C. ectypoides (Peck) Singer, then raised subg. Pseudoarmillariella to genus rank for P. ectypoides in 1965. Moncalvo et al. (2002) were the first to show inclusion of tribe Cantharelluleae in the Arrhenia–Lichenomphalia clade (as cantharelloid clade 62) using an LSU analysis, but without significant branch support. Using a four-gene Supermatrix analysis, Lodge et al. (2006) were the first to show significant support for the Cantharelluleae clade, while Matheny et al. (2006) were the first to show significant Bayesian support (1.0 PP) for including Pseudoarmillariella in the Hygrophoraceae and subf. Lichenomphalioideae.