However, since learn more the lead time between bone mass of children and osteoporotic fracture in later life is considerable, the strength of this association may be attenuated by many other influences during the intervening years, including co-morbidities, medication use, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, and the occupational environment. Thus, the complex interrelationship between bone area and bone mass in adulthood in relation to SES may differ from that in childhood. However, that being said,
the alternative explanation provided by Clark and Tobias suggests a conceivable explanation and offers an additional and very interesting area of further enquiry. References 1. Clark E, Tobias J (2009) Educational achievement and fracture risk. Osteoporos Int. doi:10.1007/s00198-009-1115-7 2. Brennan
SL, Pasco JA, Urquhart DM, Oldenburg B, Hanna F, Wluka AE (2009) The association between socioeconomic status and osteoporotic fracture in population-based adults: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int 20:1487–1497CrossRefPubMed 3. Wilson R, Chase GA, Chrischilles EA, Wallace RB (2006) Hip fracture risk among community-dwelling elderly people in the United States: a prospective study of physical, cognitive and socioeconomic indicators. Am J Pub Health 96:1210–1218CrossRef 4. Vestergaard P, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L (2006) Socioeconomic aspects of QNZ solubility dmso fractures within universal public healthcare: a nationwide case-control study Compound C in vivo from Denmark. Scand J Pub Health 34:371–377CrossRef 5. Farahmand BY, Persson PG, Michaelsson
K, Baron JA, Parker MG, Ljunghall S (2000) Socioeconomic status, marital status and hip fracture risk: a population-based case-control study. Osteoporos Int 11:803–808CrossRefPubMed 6. Clark EM, Ness A, Tobias JH, ALSPAC Study Team (2005) Social position affects bone mass in childhood through opposing actions on height and weight. J Bone Miner Res 20:2082–2089CrossRef”
“Introduction In the last decade, osteoporosis and fragility fractures in men received more attention than previously because of new awareness of those conditions on the health system. They account for one-third of all fractures in individuals 50 years and over and for one-fourth of the total costs associated with fractures . It has PR-171 in vitro also been documented that fragility fractures in men lead to higher morbidity and mortality than women [2, 3]. Vertebral fractures in men have been associated with reduced function, increased dependency, and poor quality of life. Men with symptomatic vertebral fractures commonly complain of back pain, loss of height, and kyphosis; they also have significantly less energy, poor sleep patterns, more emotional problems, and impaired mobility when compared with age-matched control subjects. About 20% of asymptomatic vertebral fractures that get clinical attention occur in men . It has been suggested that race and geography might play a role in the different figures of fragility fractures in men.