“Chronic Stattic order hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the main cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma in western countries. There is evidence that HCV clearance induced by antiviral therapy is beneficial, increasing survival and reducing the complications of cirrhosis. Triple therapy with boceprevir

or telaprevir associated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin has increased rates of sustained viral response both in treatment-naive patients and in those failing previous regimens. Before treating patients with these new molecules, physicians should be familiar with their indications and the regimens to be used. Furthermore, both adverse events and the development of resistances must be monitored. The main aims are careful selection of patients and of the regimen to be used, and achieving adequate adherence to obtain optimal results. (C) 2012 Elsevier Espana, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.”
“Predaceous hemipteran feeding on different trophic levels have raised questions about their ecology and role in biological control. Therefore, specific adaptations allowing them to simultaneously use plants and animals as sources for their nutritional requirements

are important. Enzymatic variability, Napabucasin cost in predatory hemipterans has been suggested as the basic adaptation for convergent or divergent to omnivory. Thus, the salivary enzymatic complexes of predatory hemipterans have been furnished a partial understanding of the mechanisms permitting switching between plant and animal food sources. In this study, a discriminatory analysis was performed to attribute trophic habits to each insect investigated based on the presence and absence of salivary enzyme combinations. Although peptidase is found in all tested predatory hemipterans’ salivary glands, it is not a distinguishing enzyme because it has been found in phytophagous species as well. However, the presence of peptidase and amylase activity in hemipteran salivary

glands is considered to be an explanation for these insects’ ability to switch their diet, predators feeding on plants (amylase) and herbivores taking prey (peptidase).”
“Objective: Vorinostat research buy The most recent systematic review and metaanalysis comparing the analgesic efficacy and side effects of paravertebral and epidural blockade for thoracotomy was published in 2006. Nine well-designed randomized trials with controversial results have been published since then. The present report constitutes an updated meta-analysis of this issue. Summary of Background: Thoracotomy is a major surgical procedure and is associated with severe postoperative pain. Epidural analgesia is the gold standard for postthoracotomy pain management, but has its limitations and contraindications, and paravertebral blockade is increasingly popular.

Complete angiographic and clinical cure was achieved, and no comp

Complete angiographic and clinical cure was achieved, and no complications related to the new embolization procedure occurred.”
“Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and risk factors for PAH in patients registered in the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) database, the first online registry of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of patients with SLE was conducted using the CSTAR registry. Resting transthoracic echocardiography was used to estimate pulmonary artery pressure (PAP); PAH was defined as systolic PAP Selleckchem Ro-3306 (PASP) bigger than = 40 mmHg. Patients with interstitial lung disease, valvular

disease or cardiomyopathy were excluded because of disease influence on PAP. We explored potential risk factors for PAH including patient characteristics, organ involvement, laboratory findings and SLE disease activity. Results: Of 1934 patients with SLE, 74 had PASP with 54.2 +/- 17.1 (40,106) mmHg and were diagnosed with probable PAH. The incidences of lupus nephritis, pleuritis, pericarditis, Selleck Roscovitine hypocomplementemia, anti-SSA, and anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) were significantly higher in patients with PAH than in those without (p smaller than 0.05). SLE disease activity was significantly higher in patients with PAH than in unaffected patients (p smaller than 0.05). Multivariate analysis

indicated that pericarditis (odds ratio (OR) = 4.248), pleuritis (OR = 3.061) and anti-RNP (OR = 2.559) were independent Tariquidar order risk factors for PAH in patients with SLE (p smaller than 0.05). Conclusions: The possible prevalence of PAH was 3.8% in Chinese patients with SLE in the CSTAR registry. The significant association of pericarditis, pleuritis and anti-RNP positivity with PAH suggests that higher disease activity and vasculopathy may both contribute to the development of PAH in SLE, which need be treated aggressively to improve prognosis.”

fungi basidiomes were collected from northern Thailand and pure cultures were isolated. The morphology and molecular characteristics identified them as Astraeus odoratus, Phlebopus portentosus, Pisolithus albus and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study investigated the in vitro ability of selected fungi to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), to solubilize different toxic metal (Co, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn)-containing minerals, and metal tolerance. The results indicated that all fungi are able to produce IAA in liquid medium. The optimum temperature for IAA production of all fungi was 30 A degrees C, and the optimum concentration of L-tryptophan of Astraeus odoratus, Pisolithus albus and Scleroderma sinnamariense was 2 mg ml(-1). The highest IAA yield (65.29 A +/- 1.17 mu g ml(-1)) was obtained from Phlebopus portentosus after 40 days of cultivation in culture medium supplemented with 4 mg ml(-1) of L-tryptophan.

07 to 1 18]), which explained 23% of the variance (p < 0 001)

07 to 1.18]), which explained 23% of the variance (p < 0.001).\n\nConclusions: Patients who continue to use opioid pain medication one to two months after surgery for musculoskeletal trauma have more psychological distress, less effective learn more coping strategies, and greater symptoms and disability than patients who do not take opioids, irrespective of injury, surgical procedure, or surgeon.”
“Although the characteristic

time constant for viscous relaxation of glass is so large at room temperature that viscous flow would be hardly detectable, a permanent deformation can be easily achieved at ambient temperature by applying a sharp contact loading-a Vickers indenter for instance-for few seconds only. We provide direct evidence for densification EX 527 datasheet and volume conservative shear flow by means of atomic force microscopy topological analysis of the indentation profile and volume on as-quenched and densified specimens (pressure up to 25 GPa). We show that both possible mechanisms contribute to different extents depending on the glass composition. A major finding is that densification predominates in glasses with relatively low atomic packing density but that shear flow relays on once densification is achieved. (c) 2010 American Institute

of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3407559]“
“The mucus of scleractinian corals harbors a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, but little is known about the eukaryotic fraction of this microbiota. In this study, a quantitative and qualitative description of microalgae assemblages associated with the mucus of two species of massive corals is presented. During the first half of 2004, in “Los Frailes” Archipelago (Southern Caribbean), samples of mucus were randomly taken from healthy colonies of Diploria sp. and Colpophyllia sp. Also, samples of water surrounding each colony were taken monthly for six months. Multivariate analysis showed that microalgae assemblages from the mucus were significantly different from those found in the water column, and that variation of microalgae

assemblage composition in time was dependent on the coral species. The results indicate that most of the microalgae assemblage associated with the mucus did not originate from a passive trapping of species commonly found Selleckchem GANT61 in the phytoplankton. Nevertheless, temporal variations of both assemblages (i.e., phytoplankton and mucus) were very dynamic but closely associated.”
“Objective: To investigate whether the addition of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) improves diagnostic performance in predicting pathologic response and residual breast cancer size following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and methods: A total of 78 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative breast MRI with DWI following neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. DWI was performed on a 1.5 T system with b values of 0 and 750 s/mm. or on a 3 T system with b values of 0 and 800 or 0 and 1000 s/mm.

Patients with myocardial infarction have hyperfunctional platelet

Patients with myocardial infarction have hyperfunctional platelets, which predict the degree of myocardial necrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that

platelets PRIMA-1MET in vitro may be even more activated in patients whose myocardial infarction leads to cardiac arrest and compared them with patients whose cardiac arrest was due to a noncardiac origin.\n\nDesign: Prospective observational study.\n\nSetting: Emergency department of a tertiary care hospital.\n\nPatients: One hundred four patients with witnessed cardiac arrest who achieved ROSC.\n\nInterventions: Blood sampling.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: We assessed collagen adenosine diphosphate closure time with the platelet function analyzer-100, and measured plasma levels of von Willebrand factor: ristocetin cofactor activity levels by turbidometry. Independent physicians diagnosed the origin of cardiac arrest. The majority of cardiac arrests were caused by myocardial ischemia. Invariably, collagen adenosine diphosphate

closure time values (55 seconds; 95% confidence interval: 52-58 seconds) were much shorter in these patients compared with patients with other causes of cardiac arrest (110 seconds; 95% confidence interval: 84-135 seconds, p < 0.001). von Willebrand factor: ristocetin cofactor activity plasma levels were more than three-fold above normal values in both groups.\n\nConclusions: Patients with myocardial ischemia-triggered cardiac arrest had the highest degree

of platelet hyperfunction under high shear rates, which was not solely due to increased von Willebrand factor. Future trials are necessary to clarity whether rapid, buy EPZ-6438 more aggressive antiplatelet therapy improves outcome after cardiac arrest. (Crit Care Med 2009; 37:975-979)”
“The author reviewed 910 cases of consecutive esophageal biopsies in the last 15 year in the pathology laboratory of our hospital. There were 693 normal mucosa and benign lesions (76.2%) and 217 malignant lesions (23.8%). No significant changes were recognized in the esophagus in BI 2536 50 biopsies (5.5%). In benign lesions, the number and frequency (percentages) were as follows: 263 chronic esophagitis (28.9%), 98 heterotopic gastric mucosa (10.8%), 3 heterotopic colonic mucosa (0.3%), 71 glycogenic acanthosis (7.8%), 68 candidiasis (7.5%), 35 benign ulcer (3.8%), 41 squamous papilloma (4.5%), 4 granular cell tumor (0.4%), 1 tubular adenoma (0.1%), 2 cytomegalovirus esophagitis (0.2%), 3 leiomyoma (0.3%), 17 basal cell hyperplasia (1.9%), and 37 Barrett’s epithelium (4%). In malignant lesions, the number and frequency (percentages) were as follows: 53 mild dysplasia (5.8%), 29 moderate dysplasia (3.2%), 31 severe dysplasia (3.4%), 13 carcinoma in situ (1.4%), 68 squamous cell carcinoma (7.5%), 7 primary adenocarcinoma (0.8%), 1 primary signet ring cell carcinoma (0.1%), 4 primary small cell carcinoma (0.

For both the prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the disorder content is

For both the prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the disorder content is generally independent of the proteome size. However, disorder shows a sharp increase associated with the transition from prokaryotic

to eukaryotic cells. This suggests that the increased disorder content in eukaryotic proteomes might be used by nature to deal with the increased cell complexity due to the appearance of the various cellular compartments.”
“The virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on the ability of the bacilli to switch between replicative (growth) Rapamycin manufacturer and non-replicative (dormancy) states in response to host immunity. However, the gene regulatory events associated with transition to dormancy are largely unknown. To address this question, we have assembled the largest M. tuberculosis transcriptional-regulatory network to date, and characterized the temporal response of this network during Caspase phosphorylation adaptation to stationary phase and hypoxia, using published microarray data. Distinct sets of transcriptional subnetworks (origons) were responsive at various stages of adaptation, showing a gradual progression of network response under both conditions. Most of the responsive origons were in common between the two conditions and may help define a general transcriptional signature of M. tuberculosis growth arrest. These results open the door for a systems-level understanding of transition to non-replicative

persistence, a phenotypic state that prevents sterilization of infection by the host immune response and promotes the establishment of latent M. tuberculosis infection, a condition found in two billion people worldwide.”

multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS), caused by infection with the Polyomavirus JC virus (JCV). Because there are no known treatments or prognostic factors, we performed MX69 ic50 a long-term study focusing mainly on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from PML patients to describe the virological features akin to the different forms of the disease. Twenty-eight PML patients were enrolled: 10 HIV-1+ patients with classical PML (CPML), 9 HIV-1+ patients with slowly progressing or stable neurological symptoms (benign PML), 3 HIV-1+ asymptomatic patients, and 6 HIV-1-negative patients. CSF, urine, and blood samples were collected at the enrollment (baseline) and every 6 months afterwards when possible. The JCV DNA and HIV-1 RNA loads were determined, and the JCV strains were characterized. At baseline, the mean CSF JCV load was log?6.0 +/- 1.2?copies/ml for CPML patients, log?4.0 +/- 1.0 copies/ml for benign PML patients, log?4.2 +/- 0.5 copies/ml for asymptomatic PML patients, and log?5.8 +/- 1.3?copies/ml for HIV-1-negative PML patients (CPML vs. benign: P?<?0.01; CPML vs. asymptomatic: P?<?0.05; HIV-1 negative vs. benign: P?<?0.01).

The effect of glutamate on the evoked EPP release might be due to

The effect of glutamate on the evoked EPP release might be due to NO-mediated modulation (phosphorylation) of the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels at the presynaptic release zone that are necessary for evoked quantal release and open during EPP production.”

Aberrant regulation of cell migration drives progression of many diseases, including cancer cell invasion and metastasis formation. Analysis of tumour invasion and metastasis in living organisms to date is cumbersome and involves difficult and time consuming investigative techniques. For primary human tumours we establish here a simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective in vivo model to analyse tumour invasion and metastatic behaviour.\n\nMethods: We fluorescently labelled small explants from Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor gastrointestinal human tumours and investigated their metastatic behaviour after transplantation into zebrafish embryos and larvae. The transparency of the zebrafish embryos allows to follow invasion, migration and micrometastasis formation in real-time. High resolution imaging was achieved through laser scanning confocal microscopy of live zebrafish.\n\nResults: In the transparent zebrafish embryos invasion, circulation of tumour cells in blood vessels, migration and micrometastasis

formation can be followed in real-time. Xenografts of primary human tumours showed invasiveness and micrometastasis formation within 24 hours after transplantation, which was absent when non-tumour tissue was implanted. Furthermore, primary human tumour cells, when organotopically implanted in the zebrafish liver, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 demonstrated invasiveness and metastatic behaviour, whereas primary control cells remained in the liver. Pancreatic tumour cells showed no metastatic behaviour when injected into cloche mutant embryos, which lack a functional vasculature.\n\nConclusion: Our results show that the zebrafish is a useful in vivo animal model for rapid analysis of invasion and metastatic behaviour of primary human tumour specimen.”
“This study was performed on 38 patients with locoregionally recurrent

non-small-cell lung cancer after surgical resection. We hypothesized that smaller gross tumor volume (GTV) would see more be associated with better survival outcomes in these patients. The prognosis of patients with small GTV and isolated local or regional recurrence was favorable. GTV was a better predictor of overall survival than stage at recurrence and may be useful for risk stratification of patients with postsurgically recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer.\n\nPurpose: To investigate the prognostic value of gross tumor volume (GTV) for predicting survival outcomes and to present the results of definitive radiation therapy (RT) in patients with postsurgical locoregionally recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

This may contribute to the previously shown significant effect on

This may contribute to the previously shown significant effect on reducing falls and fractures with the same regimen during a controlled long-term trial in primary osteoporosis.”
“The effects of the following additives on the amaranth (A), quinoa (Q) and oat (O) dough rheological properties and the extruded tagliatelle dough mechanical characteristics were evaluated: carboxymethylcellulose of sodium DAPT inhibitor (CIVIC), whey protein isolate (WPI), casein (CAS), chitosan (CHIT) and pre-gelatinized starch (PS). The amaranth, quinoa and oat theological dough properties and amaranth, quinoa and oat tagliatelle mechanical characteristics were compared to those of their respective

controls (ACTRL, QCTRL and OCTRL) and of the SEMOLINA sample. The storage modulus (G) and loss modulus (G ”) values JQ1 clinical trial of the quinoa and oat doughs with PS were similar to those of the semolina dough. For all tagliatelle samples, WPI reduced the elastic modulus or Young’s modulus towards

that of the semolina tagliatelle. Moreover, the additives did not have particular influence on the tenacity with the exception of the amaranth tagliatelle added with WPI. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This article presents an updated account of integrated information theory of consciousness (IIT) and some of its implications. IIT stems from thought experiments that lead to phenomenological axioms (existence, compositionality, information, integration, exclusion) and corresponding ontological postulates. The information axiom asserts that every experience is specific it is what it is by differing in its particular way from a large repertoire of alternatives. The integration axiom asserts that each experience is unified it cannot be reduced to independent selleck chemicals llc components. The exclusion axiom asserts that every

experience is definite it is limited to particular things and not others and flows at a particular speed and resolution. IIT formalizes these intuitions with postulates. The information postulate states that only “differences that make a difference” from the intrinsic perspective of a system matter: a mechanism generates cause-effect information if its present state has selective past causes and selective future effects within a system. The integration postulate states that only information that is irreducible matters: mechanisms generate integrated information only to the extent that the information they generate cannot be partitioned into that generated within independent components. The exclusion postulate states that only maxima of integrated information matter: a mechanism specifies only one maximally irreducible set of past causes and future effects a concept.

The system

The system Elafibranor inhibitor is designed

to deliver 14 X 14 arrays of beamlets with a minimum probe size of 1 nm. In this article, the performance of the system is examined for a fixed magnification case. (C) 2010 American Vacuum Society. [DOI: 10.1116/1.3498749]“
“ObjectivesAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) people have significant health disparity compared with other Australians. The present study examines the characteristics of ATSI patients presenting to three EDs of a single healthcare network to determine whether any healthcare disadvantages exist.\n\nMethodsThis is a retrospective audit of 179795 presentations to the ED from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Measures included socioeconomic status, general practitioner nomination, triage category status, primary diagnosis recorded, length of stay and the outcome of stay, including numbers leaving before and after medical treatment was commenced.\n\nResultsATSI people were found to live in the lower socioeconomic regions of the network’s catchment area, were more likely to attend the ED (135.5 non-ATSI persons presenting per 1000 non-ATSI persons and 210.4

ATSI persons presenting per 1000 ATSI persons), less likely to nominate a general practitioner (73.3 vs 82.1%; OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.51-0.71), more likely buy P5091 to leave before (5.5 vs 4.0%; OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.80) or after treatment had commenced (3.2 vs 2.3%; OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-1.97), and were more likely to re-attend the ED than non-ATSI people (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.46).\n\nConclusionATSI

people living in Melbourne’s south-east have social and health utilisation inequities, which might have an impact on their health status.”
“The aim JQ1 datasheet of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vero cells on early embryonic cleavage rate and overcome cellblock of mice embryos in vitro. Female mice were super-ovulated by Intraperitoneal injection of 5 IU Pregnant mare serum gonadotropine (PMSG) and 5 IU Human Chorionic Gonadotropine (HCG) 48 h later. The super-ovulated female NMRI mice placed individually with NMRI (Noda Medical Research Institute) males of proved fertility. The following morning, the females with positive vaginal plug were killed and cumulus-enclosed single cell embryos (2PN) were recovered. Two pronuclear (n=170) embryos were divided randomly into 2 groups: (1) co culture with vero cells (2) culture in simple culture medium. The rate of the development and the morphological appearance of mouse embryos in two groups were recorded daily for 120 h after retrieval in each system using inverted microscope. On day 5 of development the results showed that embryos cultured on vero cells had a significantly higher blastocyst and hatching formation rate than those in simple culture medium alone (p<0.05). It is concluded that Vero cells may improve mouse embryo development partly by increasing blastocyst formation, hatching blastocyst rate.

These changes may contribute to the impaired specific T-cell resp

These changes may contribute to the impaired specific T-cell responses in CHC patients. 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier

Inc. All rights reserved.”
“VAN DIJK, J.-W., R.J.F. MANDERS, E. E. CANFORA, W. VAN MECHELEN, F. HARTGENS, C. D. A. STEHOUWER, and L. J. C. VAN LOON. Exercise and 24-hGlycemic Control: Equal Effects for All Type 2 Diabetes Patients? Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 628-635, 2013. Purpose: We assessed the effect of a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise on subsequent 24-h glycemic control in 60 type 2 diabetes patients. Moreover, we examined whether individual responses selleck chemicals to exercise were related to subjects’ baseline

characteristics, including age, body mass index, diabetes duration, exercise performance, medication, and HbA(1c) content. Methods: Sixty type 2 diabetes patients check details (insulin-treated, n = 23) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. Patients were studied on two occasions for 3 d under strict dietary standardization but otherwise free-living conditions. Parameters of glycemic control (means [95% confidence interval]) were assessed by continuous glucose monitoring over the 24-h period after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance-type exercise or no Citarinostat chemical structure exercise at all (control). Results: Type 2 diabetes patients experienced hyperglycemia (blood glucose >10 mmol.L-1) for as much as 8:16 h:min (6:44 to 9:48 h:min) per day. The prevalence of hyperglycemia was reduced by 31% to 5: 38 h: min (3: 17 to 7: 00 h: min) over the 24-h period after the exercise

bout (P < 0.001). Moreover, exercise lowered average blood glucose concentrations by 0.9 mmol.L-1 (0.7 to 1.2) and reduced glycemic variability (P < 0.05). The response to exercise showed considerable variation between subjects and correlated positively with HbA(1c) levels (r = 0.38, P < 0.01). Nevertheless, even well-controlled patients with an HbA(1c) level below 7.0% (n = 28) achieved a 28% reduction in the daily prevalence hyperglycemia after exercise (P < 0.01). Conclusions: A single bout of moderate-intensity exercise substantially improves glycemic control throughout the subsequent day in insulin- and non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes patients. Of all baseline characteristics, only subject’ HbA(1c) level is related to the magnitude of response to exercise. Nevertheless, the present study demonstrates that even well-controlled patients benefit considerably from the blood glucose-lowering properties of daily exercise.”
“Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common known cause of Parkinson’s disease (PD).

This was done by an in vitro study based on larvae from cod

This was done by an in vitro study based on larvae from cod

(Gadus morhua). Ten larvae were placed in each of the culture containers containing agar that was separated into three segments of equal size. Three categories of agar were used containing 0, 2 and 7 % cod liver oil. A total of 900 larvae were included. The study consisted of three parts: The purpose of experiment I was to establish whether different lipid selleck compound concentrations influenced the migration pattern at all. Experiment II was intended to examine whether A. simplex L3-larvae were able to actively search for lipids. Experiment III was set up to analyse the short-distance dispersion of the L3-larvae. Experiment I indicated that the L3-larvae move randomly but do not stop randomly since the tendency to move out of the start area was inversely correlated with lipid concentration. Experiment II indicates that the larvae are almost unable to select areas of high lipid concentrations when more than a few centimetres away. Experiment III showed that the L3-larvae prefer high-fat content and can seek it out over short distances.”
“Aims: To disentangle the alcohol-related needs of short stay, revolving door, male prisoners,

and offer a theoretically driven selleck kinase inhibitor but practical approach for allocation of scarce service resources. Methods: A prospective longitudinal interview, questionnaire and records study of pre-trial men newly imprisoned in Wales and SW England. Results: Two hundred and

forty-one pre-trial men completed an interview and questionnaires within a week of a new reception into prison; 170 completed follow-up 3 weeks later. Questions about problems with alcohol or illicit drugs revealed that problem drinkers were less likely than problem drug users to recognize their difficulty or seek or get help for this during their first month of imprisonment. Co-morbidity was common, but a third of the men had alcohol problems alone. Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire identified 80% (195/241) men likely to require some intervention, twice the number identified by direct questions relying on prisoners’ judgment about problem use. Furthermore it allowed categorization according to likely risk (dependency), need (problem recognition) and responsivity (wish Lonafarnib for help). Conclusion: Alcohol misuse is recognized, worldwide, as fuelling crime and more common among prisoners than the general population. In England and Wales, it is a particular factor in brief but recurrent periods of imprisonment. There have been calls to pay more attention to its use in this context, albeit without any increase in resources. Adding two questions to standard screening enables application of the risk-need-responsivity model to problem drinkers and may identify those most likely to benefit from treatment.”