\n\nResults: GS-7977 mouse Spectral pre-processing to remove precursor peaks and their associated neutral losses prior to protein sequence library searches resulted in a 9.8% increase in peptide identifications at a 1% False Discovery Rate [FDR] compared to previous OMSSA filter. Modifications to the OMSSA noise filter to accommodate various ion-types resulted in a further 4.2% increase in peptide identifications at 1% FDR. Moreover, ETD spectra when searched with charge states obtained from the precursor charge determination algorithm is shown to be

up to 3.5 times faster than the general range search method, with a minor 3.8% increase in sensitivity.\n\nConclusion: Overall, there is an 18.8% increase in peptide identifications at 1% FDR by incorporating the new precursor filter, noise filter and by using the charge determination algorithm, when compared to previous versions of OMSSA.”
“beta-Substitued-meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with 5,10-dioxobenzo[g]- or 5,6-dioxobenzo[h]chromene, pyrano[3,2-c]coumarin and benzopyran moieties and the corresponding Zn(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes were studied by

electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). These heterocyclic moieties have well established pharmacological activities and as such the introduction of these motifs into the p-pyrrolic position of the porphyrin macrocycle can alter the properties of the macrocycle and can produce new molecules with dual functions. The free base and Zn(II) complexes

showed, in the ESI-MS spectra, the [M+H](+) ions while the Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes showed the M+center dot ions. The [M+H](+) and M+center dot ions were Bucladesine cell line induced to fragment and the corresponding ESI tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) were analyzed. The main fragmentation mechanism occurs in general via the retro hetero-Diels Alder pathway Selleck Apoptosis Compound Library while unexpected fragmentations or rearrangements were observed principally with the Zn(II) complexes. The analysis of the fragmentation pattern of all complexes indicates that the presence or absence of the carbonyl function in the beta-substituent led to the formation of secondary fragments. The differentiation of the isomers 2a and 2b was only possible by comparison of their MS/MS spectra. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to characterize the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) isoforms in rabbit masticatory muscles compared with those in fast-twitch muscle. It was hypothesized that combined expression of the SERCA isoforms in fast-and slow-twitch muscles accounts for lower Ca-ATPase activity. SERCA was isolated by differential centrifugation, the isoforms were determined by ELISA, and the activity of each isoform was measured using a colorimetric method. Activity was tested for significance by ANOVA, and the distribution of isoforms was assessed using the chi-square test (P smaller than 0.05) and correlated to SERCA activity using Spearman’s rank correlation.

To delineate findings that might have implications as to the caus

To delineate findings that might have implications as to the cause of MD, we have studied rigidly selected patient populations with unilateral and bilateral MD\n\nStudy Design: Prospective cohort.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Patients with a potential VX-680 purchase diagnosis of MD underwent extensive evaluations (audiometric, radiologic, and immunologic), and only patients with idiopathic MD were included in this study. Bilaterality of disease was based on clinical and audiometric criteria. Variables identified as part of the evaluation were subjected to statistical analyses to determine

if significant differences existed in the characteristics of patients in the unilateral and bilateral groups\n\nResults: Patients with bilateral disease presented at a significantly younger age and had a significantly higher incidence of a personal history of migraines and a family history of MD. None of the other identified variables were found to be significantly different.\n\nConclusion: Patients with bilateral MD have

a higher incidence of migraines and of a family history of MD. Implications as to disease pathogenesis are discussed.”
“The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is related to quality of oocytes and embryos. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA levels of IGF1 and IGF2 and their receptors, IGFR1 and IGFR2, as well as IGFBP2, IGFBP4, and PAPP-A in oocytes from Nelore compared to Holstein cows. Pools of oocytes (20 oocytes/pool) from Nelore (n = 8 pools) and Holstein (n = 4 pools) were obtained via ovum pick-up (OPU, 10 sessions) and cumulus cells and zona pellucida were removed. The pools were submitted to total RNA extraction. Expression of members of the IGF system was assessed by real time RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of IGF1 and IGF2, IGF1 and IGFR2, IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 was significantly higher

(P < learn more 0.01) in oocytes from Holstein whereas the expression of PAPP-A was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in oocytes from Nelore cows. The high PAPP-A expression and the low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 are associated with more efficient degradation of IGFBPs, which results in greater bioavailability of IGF in Nelore oocytes when compared to the Holstein. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The article presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for airborne laser scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites with varying point densities in the range 3-15 points m(-2) and different surface topography as well as land-cover characteristics. In this article, existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches that are based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation, and segmentation are compared. The results are described based on qualitative and quantitative analyses. A quantification of the qualitative analyses is presented and applied to the data sets in this example.

The endoribonuclease, binding to the PNPase trimer, the RhlB mono

The endoribonuclease, binding to the PNPase trimer, the RhlB monomer, and the enolase dimer, assembles into an RNA degradosome necessary for learn more effective RNA metabolism. The RNase E processing is found to be negatively regulated by the protein modulator RraA which appears to work by interacting with the non-catalytic region of the endoribonuclease and significantly reduce

the interaction between RNase E and PNPase, RhlB and enolase of the RNA degradosome. Here we report the crystal structure of RraA from P. aeruginosa to a resolution of 2.0 . The overall architecture of RraA is very similar to other known RraAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Gel filtration and dynamic light scattering experiments suggest that ALK mutation the protein regulator is arranged as a hexamer, consistent with the crystal packing of “a dimer of trimer” arrangement. Structure and sequence

conservation analysis suggests that the hexamer RraA contains six putative charged protein-protein interaction sites which may serve as binding sites for RNase E.”
“Strain Yw12, isolated from activated sludge, could completely degrade and utilize methyl parathion as the sole carbon, phosphorus and energy sources for growth in the basic salt media. It could also completely degrade and utilize p-nitrophenol as the sole carbon and energy sources for growth in the minimal salt media. Phenotypic features, physiological and biochemical characteristics,

and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequence showed that this strain belongs to the genus of Agrobacterium sp. Response surface methodology was used to optimize degradation conditions. Under its optimal degradation conditions, 50 mg l(-1) MP was completely degraded within 2 h by strain Yw12 and the degradation product PNP was also completely degraded within 6 h. Furthermore, strain Yw12 could also degrade Pfizer Licensed Compound Library research buy phoxim, methamidophos, chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, deltamethrin and atrazine when provided as the sole carbon and energy sources. Enzymatic analysis revealed that the MP degrading enzyme of strain Yw12 is an intracellular enzyme and is expressed constitutively. These results indicated that strain Yw12 might be used as a potential and effective organophosphate pesticides degrader for bioremediation of contaminated sites.”
“Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) with a mixed transition metal catalytic system consisting of Fe(0) and small amounts of CuBr2/PMDETA (N,N,N’,N ”,N ”-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) in water-isopropanol mixtures at 60 degrees C and 25 degrees C is reported and compared with commonly used CuBr/PMDETA-mediated ATRP systems.

5-2 0-fold) Compared to 10-CLA, 9-CLA decreased the induction of

5-2.0-fold). Compared to 10-CLA, 9-CLA decreased the induction of the FA metabolizing gene ACOX-1 less than did PBE, while 10-CLA decreased the induction of PBE less than did ACOX-1. Both CLAs and precursor FAs upregulated PPRE-bearing genes, but with comparatively less or marginal activation of PPAR subtypes. This indicates that the binding of CLAs and their precursor Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor FAs to PPAR subtypes results in PPAR activation, thereby induction of the target transporter genes

coupled with downstream lipid metabolising genes such as ACOX-1 and PBE. To sum up, the expression profiles of these candidate genes showed that CLAs and their precursor FAs are involved in lipid signalling by modulating the PPAR alpha, beta, or gamma subtype for the indirect activation of the PPAR-target genes, which may in turn be responsible for the supposed health effects of CLA, and that care should be taken while calculating the actual fold induction values of candidate genes with SRT2104 cost reference to housekeeping gene and DMSO as they may impart false positive results.”
“The myelin sheath is a multilayered membrane in the nervous system, which has unique biochemical properties. Myelin carries a set of specific high-abundance proteins, the structure and function of which are still poorly understood. The proteins

of the myelin sheath are involved in a number of neurological diseases, including autoimmune diseases and inherited neuropathies. In this review, we briefly discuss the structural properties and functions of selected myelin-specific proteins (P0, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, myelin-associated glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein, P2, proteolipid protein, peripheral myelin protein of 22 kDa, 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase, and periaxin); such properties include, for example, interactions with lipid bilayers and the presence of large intrinsically disordered regions in some myelin proteins. A detailed

understanding of myelin protein structure and function at the molecular level will be required to fully grasp their physiological roles in the myelin this website sheath. (c) 2013 BioFactors, 2013″
“Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase worldwide. Overweight and obesity increase the risk for the development of non-communicable diseases during childhood and adolescence, and predispose the individual to the development of overweight, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic and other disorders in adulthood. In Africa the number of overweight or obese children has doubled since 1990. In South Africa, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase, but the prevalence varies with age, gender and population group. These differences are important when intervention programmes and policies are considered.


directly associated with non-adherence we


directly associated with non-adherence were: male gender, residence in the North, Northeast, or Central-West of Brazil, and smoking. Non-adherence decreased with age, per capita family income, number of chronic diseases, and medical consultation in the previous 12 months, and was inversely associated with 11 or more years of schooling (PR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.98), not working and not being unemployed, and physical activity. Adherence to antihypertensive medication is necessary and requires investment in primary care, improved access to health services, and measures to offset regional, social, and gender inequalities. Hypertension; Drugs of Continuous Use; Therapeutics”
“The Wnt4 molecule is a secretory AZD2171 solubility dmso glycoprotein implicated in proliferation and differentiation of both normal and malignant cells. Despite extensive investigation of Wnt4 expression in various cancers, little is known about its expression pattern in different types of pituitary tumors. In this study, we examined GSK1904529A inhibitor the expression of Wnt4 and its downstream molecule beta-catenin in pituitary adenoma specimens. Pituitary adenoma tissues were collected from 43 patients and

four normal pituitary tissue samples were obtained at autopsy. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and western blot were performed to detect the expression of Wnt4 and beta-catenin mRNA and protein, respectively. Tumor invasion grade (Knosp grade) was determined on MRI images EPZ5676 and was correlated to beta-catenin expression. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated elevated Wnt4 expression in follicle-stimulating hormone-producing adenomas, growth

hormone-producing adenomas, prolactinproducing adenomas, thyroid-stimulating hormone-producing adenomas and non-functioning adenomas, while adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing adenomas showed a low level of Wnt4 expression that was comparable to normal pituitary tissue. These results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analyses. The expression pattern of beta-catenin was similar to that of Wnt4 and was inversely correlated to the Knosp grade of tumor invasion. These data indicate that Wnt4 signaling is deregulated in most pituitary adenomas and its excessive activation may inhibit pituitary tumor invasion. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A recent study found that cutting shoots under water while xylem was under tension (which has been the standard protocol for the past few decades) could produce artefactual embolisms inside the xylem, overestimating hydraulic vulnerability relative to shoots cut under water after relaxing xylem tension (Wheeler etal. 2013). That study also raised the possibility that such a Wheeler effect’ might occur in studies of leaf hydraulic vulnerability.

Sixty-eight percent said they would make a change in profession r

Sixty-eight percent said they would make a change in profession related activities. At 60 days, 53% indicated they had implemented a change. In comparison to those who reported

no change, those who made a change reported higher levels of commitment and higher levels of confidence. Logistic regression suggested that the combination of commitment and confidence did not predict implementation in this sample; however, confidence had a higher odds ratio for predicting success than did commitment. Discussion: LY3039478 Confidence should be studied further in relation to commitment as a predictor of behavioral change associated with participation in an IPE symposium. Evaluators and instructional designers should consider use of follow-up support activities to improve learners’ confidence and likelihood of successful behavior change in the workplace.”
“The evaluation of the glenohumeral joint laxity requires the estimate of displacements of the humeral head centre (HHC) with respect to the glenoid. To the authors’ knowledge, several studies have been conducted to estimate HHC translations in vivo but data under anterior loading conditions

has not been collected yet. Aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive experimental methodology based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the in vivo evaluation of the HHC translations due to an anteriorly directed force. Fourteen asymptomatic shoulders were acquired using a horizontal open MR scanner with the subjects in the supine position both at 15 degrees and 90 degrees of arm abduction with and without an anterior force of Copanlisib molecular weight 20 N applied at the HHC level. When no load was applied, from 15 degrees to 90 degrees of arm abduction, the HHC moved, anteriorly (1.5 +/- 1.3 mm) and superiorly (1.8 +/- 1.3 mm) while smaller displacements were observed medio-laterally (0.4 +/- 0.7 mm). Under the application of the anterior force the 3D displacement of the HHC with respect to the glenoid was 1.6 +/- 1.2 mm and 1.3 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively at 15

degrees and 90 degrees of arm abduction. The level of precision associated to the GHJ translation was less than 0.33 mm along all directions i.e. one order of magnitude smaller than the relevant translations. In conclusion, the MRI-based methodology allowed for the analysis of HHC displacements under conditions CA3 Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor of anterior loads within an acceptable level of reliability. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We have previously demonstrated that human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) embedded in collagen I scaffolds significantly enhance the restorative therapeutic effect of hMSCs after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we test the hypothesis that the collagen scaffold alters gene expression in hMSCs and that hMSCs impregnated into scaffolds increase the astrocytic expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the injured brain. Following TBI induced by controlled cortical impact injury, scaffold with hMSCs (3.

There was a positive correlation between nursing students locus o

There was a positive correlation between nursing students locus of control and Effort and Ability dimensions, but a significant correlation was

not found with Unchanging Truth dimension.\n\nConclusion: This researcher suggests that research should be carried out to determine nursing students’ epistemological beliefs and the factors influencing them in an environment to promote the development of these beliefs, and thus the research can be used to learn about the development of the epistemological beliefs. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All LY3039478 research buy rights reserved.”
“A Raman spectrometer and dynamic light scattering system were combined in a single platform (RamanDLS) to provide concomitant higher order structural and hydrodynamic size data for therapeutic proteins at high concentration. As model therapeutic

proteins, we studied human serum albumin (HSA) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). HSA concentration and temperature interval during heating did not affect the onset temperatures for conformation perturbation or aggregation. The impact of pH on thermal stability of HSA was tested at pHs 3, 5, and 8. Stability was the greatest at pH 8, but distinct unfolding and aggregation behaviors were observed at the different pHs. HSA structural BTSA1 ic50 transitions and aggregation kinetics were also studied in real time during isothermal incubations at pH 7. In a forced oxidation study, it was found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment reduced the thermal stability of HSA. Finally, the structure and thermal stability of IVIG were studied, and a comprehensive characterization of heatinginduced structural perturbations and aggregation was obtained. In conclusion, by providing comprehensive data on protein tertiary and secondary structures and hydrodynamic size during real-time heating or isothermal incubation experiments, the Raman-DLS system offers unique physical insights into the properties of high-concentration

protein samples. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Objective: Depression has become find more a severe global health problem, and sleeping difficulties are typically associated with depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among subjective sleep quality, objective sleep quality, and the sleep hygiene practices of hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder. Method: Daily sleep logs and actigraphy were used to obtain subjective and objective sleep data. Thirty patients were recruited from a regional teaching hospital in Taipei and completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale. Results: Significant differences were found between subjective and objective sleep data inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Mutation of the hypoxia response element (HRE) on the Senp1 promo

Mutation of the hypoxia response element (HRE) on the Senp1 promoter abolishes its transactivation in response to hypoxia. Moreover, silencing of SENP1 expression decreases VEGF production and abrogates the angiogenic functions of endothelial cell. We also find that the elongated endothelial cells in embryonic brain section and vascular endothelial cells in embryonic renal glomeruli in Senp1(-/-)

mice are markedly reduced than those in wild-type. Thus, these results show that hypoxia implies a positive feedback loop mediated by SENP1. This feedback loop is important in VEGF production, which is essential for angiogenesis in endothelial cells.”
“Goldfish (Carassius auratus) PI3K inhibitor are excellent model organisms for the neuroendocrine signaling and the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Goldfish also serve as useful model organisms in numerous other fields. In contrast to mammals, teleost fish do not have a median eminence; the anterior pituitary is innervated by numerous neuronal cell types 17-AAG nmr and thus, pituitary hormone release is directly regulated. Here we briefly describe the neuroendocrine control of luteinizing hormone. Stimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone and a multitude of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides

is opposed by the potent inhibitory actions of dopamine. The stimulatory actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin are also discussed. We will focus on the development of a cDNA microarray composed of carp and goldfish sequences which has allowed us to examine neurotransmitter-regulated gene expression in the neuroendocrine brain and to investigate potential genomic interactions between these key neurotransmitter systems. We observed that isotocin (fish homologue of oxytocin) and activins are regulated by multiple neurotransmitters, which is discussed in light of their roles in reproduction in other

species. We have also found that many novel and uncharacterized goldfish expressed sequence tags in the brain are also regulated by neurotransmitters. Their sites of production and whether they play a role in neuroendocrine signaling and control of reproduction remain to be determined. The transcriptomic tools developed to study reproduction Selleckchem Compound C could also be used to advance our understanding of neuroendocrine-immune interactions and the relationship between growth and food intake in fish. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The micronutrient iron is an essential component that plays a role in many crucial metabolic reactions. The peptide hormone hepcidin is thought to play a central role in iron homeostasis and its expression is induced by iron overloading and inflammation. Recently, hepcidin has been reported to be expressed also in the heart; however, the kinetics of altered hepcidin expression in diseases of the heart remain unknown.

The main findings include the following: 1) expressions of Cyp11a

The main findings include the following: 1) expressions of Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, and Cyp17a1 in JZ were not affected by diet but were affected by day of pregnancy; 2) expression of Hsd17b2 in both female and male JZs was remarkably increased by PR at Days 18 and 21 of pregnancy; 3) expressions of Hsd17b2 were reduced by PR in both female and male LZ at Day 18 of pregnancy and in female LZ at Day 21 of pregnancy; and 4) expression of Srd5a1in LZ was not affected by day of pregnancy, gender, or diet. These results indicate that in response to gestational protein restriction, Hsd17b2 may be a key regulator of testosterone levels and associated activities in placental zones,

apparently in a paradoxical manner.”
“Severe asthma is a heterogeneous selleck compound disease with substantial unmet clinical need. Airway damage and remodelling is a consequence of complex hostenvironment interactions and is considered to be the cardinal feature leading onto the development and persistence of airflow obstruction. In this review, we shall bring together recent insights into the causes of airway damage and remodelling that propose key roles for pathogens and mechanical damage in addition to allergens, underlying genetic susceptibility, inflammatory and structural cell interactions, Navitoclax cost and impaired resolution

of damage. We shall consider the consequences of airway remodelling in terms of airway geometry, mechanics and clinical expression of disease. Understanding the causes and consequences of airway damage and remodelling will shed light upon the structurefunction relationships required to begin to unravel the complexity of severe asthma and will enable us to target current and novel therapies as we begin to move towards realizing personalized medicine.”
“Nine new tetranorditerpenoid dilactones (2-10), together with two previously reported norditerpenoids dilactones (1, 11), and two known putative

biosynthetic intermediates, oidiolactone-E (12) and 13, were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of a culture medium of Sclerotinia Stattic homoeocarpa. Structures and absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis of representative compounds. Compounds were evaluated for herbicidal, antiplasmodial, and cytotoxic activities. Compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, and 11 were more active as growth inhibitors in a duckweed bioassay (I(50) values of 0.39-0.95 mu M) than more than half of 26 commercial herbicides previously evaluated using the same bioassay. Some of these compounds exhibited strong antiplasmodial activities as well, but they also had cytotoxic activity, thus precluding them as potential antimalarial agents.

Here, we found that

active TB patients exhibited increase

Here, we found that

active TB patients exhibited increases in numbers of Tim-3-expressing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, which preferentially displayed polarized effector memory phenotypes. Consistent with effector phenotypes, Tim-3(+)CD4(+) and Tim-3(+)CD8(+) T-cell subsets showed greater effector functions for producing Th1/Th22 cytokines and CTL effector molecules than Tim-3(-) counterparts, and Tim-3-expressing T cells more apparently limited intracellular Mtb replication in macrophages. The increased effector functions for Tim-3-expressing T cells SHP099 Others inhibitor consisted with cellular activation signaling as Tim-3(+)CD4(+) and Tim-3(+)CD8(+) T-cell subsets expressed much higher levels of phosphorylated signaling molecules p38, stat3, stat5, and Erk1/2 than Tim-3-controls. Mechanistic experiments showed that siRNA silencing of Tim-3 or soluble Tim-3 treatment interfering with membrane Tim-3-ligand interaction reduced de novo production

of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha by Tim-3-expressing T cells. Furthermore, stimulation of Tim-3 signaling pathways by antibody cross-linking of membrane Tim-3 Selleckchem INCB028050 augmented effector function of IFN-gamma production by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that Tim-3 signaling helped to drive stronger effector functions in active TB patients. This study therefore uncovered a previously unknown mechanism for T-cell immune responses regulated by Tim-3, and findings may have implications for potential immune intervention in TB.”
“Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in At.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized

stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes buy GSK1838705A of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips.