From −110 to +10 mV we observed the

normal decrease of th

From −110 to +10 mV we observed the

normal decrease of the Af and As components, but also the increase of the Ass component as shown in the inset to Fig. 2 upper-right (see under Nav1.1 panel). The steady-state inactivation resulted to have a sigmoidal voltage-dependent curve, which, differently from control curves, was characterized by a DAPT mw non complete inactivation and a pedestal at depolarized potentials. This last Ass effect indirectly and strongly affected the window current (normally negligible in control), thus producing a small and not always significant left-shift of the activation curves. When necessary the dose-response relationships of As and Ass components were computed in Fig. 4. In order to visualize the 3D structure of each studied toxin, models of CGTX-II, δ-AITX-Bcg1a and δ-AITX-Bcg1b were constructed using the SWISS-MODEL structure homology-modeling server ( [3]. The tri-dimensional structure of Anthopleurin-A toxin (determined by NMR) [24] (PDB ID: 1ahl) was employed as a template for all models.

The structures were GDC0199 drawn and visualized by DeepView/PDB viewer [12] (, version 4.0.1) and PyMOL (The PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, Version 1.2, Schrödinger, LLC.,, and were rendered by PovRay (version 3.6 by Persistence of Vision Raytracer, Pty., Ltd.). All the three models were validated by the tools Anolea, DFire, QMEAN, Gromos, Promotif and ProCheck, available in the “structure assessment” tool of the SWISS-MODEL structure homology-modeling server. The toxins employed in this study were obtained according to the previously described procedures [35] and [36]. Considering an urgent need for standardization of nomenclature of animal toxins, especially in sea anemones, we employed a rationale recently suggested [17]

for the novel components eluted during RP-HPLC at 30.24 and 30.57 min from the neurotoxic fraction of B. cangicum venom. second These peptides were named as δ-Actitoxin-Bcg1a (δ-AITX-Bcg1a) and δ-Actitoxin-Bcg1b (δ-AITX-Bcg1b), respectively. This rationale follows the biological effects exerted by the toxin (δ letter for toxins that delay the inactivation process of ion channels) and the family of the organism which the toxin is derived (“Actitoxin” for toxins isolated from sea anemones of the “Actiniidae” family). Also, full sequences of each peptide were determined in this work. Both sequences were deposited at Uniprot server ( and their accession numbers were assigned as P86459 and P86460, respectively. As CGTX-II (Uniprot ID: P0C7P9) had already been published [35], we have not changed its name.

By creating paullones able to bind to ruthenium(II) and osmium(II

By creating paullones able to bind to ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) arene moieties, we expected to reduce the encountered problems markedly. Moreover, synergistic effects and the differing targets of metals and ligands could be an advantage for inhibiting cancer cell

growth. Indolobenzazepines with the general formula [MIICl(η6-p-cymene)L]Cl (L = L1 or L2; M = Ru or Os) ( Fig. 1) have been synthesized and characterized previously [13]. These substances have shown their potency in a cytotoxicity test in three human cancer cell lines, Ruxolitinib clinical trial with IC50 values in the lower micromolar range. Hydrolysis behavior and reactivity to 5′-GMP were also reported. High cytotoxic activity was the reason for further studies on find more their impact on human cancer cells. Because of the known Cdk-inhibitory activity of the metal-free paullones, inhibition of Cdk2/cyclin E was also investigated in a cell-free assay with the metal complexes. Effects on the cell cycle were quantified by flow cytometry, and the metal accumulation in the cells, inhibition of DNA synthesis and induction of apoptosis were

compared to cytotoxic potency. Compounds 1–4 were prepared as described previously [13]. For all experiments, the compounds were first dissolved in DMSO and then diluted in medium/buffer as appropriate. Flavopiridol was kindly provided by Sanofi-Aventis. CH1 (ovarian carcinoma, human) cells were donated by Lloyd R. Kelland (CRC Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, U.K.). SW480 (colon adenocarcinoma, human)

and A549 (non-small cell lung cancer, human) cells were kindly provided by Brigitte Marian (Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Austria). Prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP, mammary gland carcinoma cell line T47D as well as the gastric carcinoma cell line N87 were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Cells were grown without antibiotics in 75-cm2 culture flasks Mirabegron (Iwaki/Asahi Technoglass) as adherent monolayer cultures in minimal essential medium (MEM) (for CH1, SW480 and A549 cells) or in RPMI 1640 medium (for LNCaP, N87 and T47D cells), both media supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and 4 mM l-glutamine, but only MEM supplemented with 1 mM sodium pyruvate and 1% non-essential amino acids (from 100 × ready-to-use stock) (all purchased from Sigma-Aldrich) without antibiotics. Cultures were maintained at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 and 95% air. Cytotoxicity in the cell lines mentioned above was determined by the colorimetric MTT assay (MTT = 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, purchased from Sigma-Aldrich).

Endocytosis of plastic nanoparticles by micro- or nanofauna can a

Endocytosis of plastic nanoparticles by micro- or nanofauna can also result in adverse toxic endpoints. As plankton species constitute the very foundation of the marine food web, any threat to these can have serious and far-reaching effects in the world oceans. There is an urgent need to quantify the magnitude of these BIBW2992 datasheet potential outcomes and assess the future impact of increasing microplastics levels on the world’s oceans. “
“The authors regret that

in page 843, caption of Fig. 2, the scientific name of the bluefish was incorrectly given as Engraulis anchoita, while the correct name of the bluefish is Pomatomus saltatrix, as given elsewhere in the text. The authors would like to apologise for this mistake and any inconvenience caused. “
“Dear reader, welcome to the first special issue entitled Progress in Science Education (PriSE) of the journal Perspective in Science. But why still another journal about science education? What are its specific aims and objectives? Science education is a highly dynamic field

of applied and basic research, at the crossroads of practical questions arising from science classrooms and teacher education, of the manifold and important relations of our modern societies with science and education, and of a scientific approach to science education and literacy from primary to tertiary level. In this setting, current and partially urgent aims and needs selleck kinase inhibitor in many countries are the following: • support and development of the young researcher generation in the field; But there is currently no periodical in the field truly responding to these

objectives: For young researchers in particular, publication in established English-speaking journals often encounters serious obstacles (length of the review process, rejection probability, language barrier). Moreover, existing journals – as basis for cooperative research and research-based development of teaching approaches and materials – are almost unavailable for schools and teachers. In view of this state of affairs, PriSE proposes mafosfamide a new dynamic platform, offering the possibility of rapid publication of highly qualitative research papers in four languages (English, French, German, Italian). By its multilingual nature, it facilitates and stimulates exchange between different countries with similar aims and needs in science education (as stated above), and thus contributes an element to a truly multi-cultural community in the field. Moreover, by virtue of its online open access format, it is accessible for free to a broad European and overseas public, including teachers and teacher students. It is a publication with a peer review system, addressing in particular young researchers wishing to publish their first scientific results.

After the injection of the S plumieri venom, the peak values of<

After the injection of the S. plumieri venom, the peak values of

MAP and HR were measured. Cross-neutralisation experiments were performed in order to determine buy EX 527 if stonefish antivenom (SFAV, obtained from CSL, Melbourne, Australia) was able to neutralise the nociceptive, edematogenic and cardiovascular effects induced by SpV. For neutralisation of nociceptive and edematogenic activities, samples of SpV were incubated at 25 °C for 30 min with SFAV at different ratios (1:0.25, 1:0.5, 1:1.0 and 1:1.5 μg of SpV/U of SFAV). After that, 30 μl of each mixture containing 15 μg of SpV were injected in the right hind paw of mice. Nociceptive and edematogenic activities were evaluated after 0.5 h according to items 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 (N = 4). For the cardiovascular assays, S. plumieri venom was pre incubated with SFAV (1:1 SpV/U of SFAV for 5 min at 25 °C), and subsequently, the mixture was administrated in bolus (300 μg protein of SpV/kg) according to

item 2.2.3 (N = 7). Samples of S. plumieri venom (15 μg and 300 μg), in appropriate vehicle, were submitted to the same incubation conditions (25 °C for 30 or 5 min) and used as positive control for inflammatory and cardiovascular assays, respectively. SpV (100 μg of protein) was applied to each of 7 cm immobilized linear pH gradients (pH 3–10 and Belinostat 4–7) strips (IPG, Bio-Rad), with Deastreak rehidration solution (Amersham, Uppsala, Sweden) for 12 h, 50 V at 20 °C. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) was performed in an IEFCell system (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Electrical conditions were set as described

by the supplier. After the first-dimension run, the IPG gel strip was incubated at room temperature for 15 min in equilibration buffer (50 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.8, 6M urea, 2% SDS, 30% glycerol and traces of bromophenol blue) containing 125 mM DTT, followed by a second incubation step (15 min at room temperature) in equilibration buffer containing 125 mM iodacetamide instead Demeclocycline of DTT. The second dimension electrophoresis was performed in a vertical system with uniform 10% separating gel (mini PROTEAN 3 cell; Bio-Rad) at 25 °C, according to the method described by Laemmli (1970). Protein spots in the gel were stained with colloidal coomassie blue brilliant CBB G-250 following procedures described elsewhere (Neuhoff et al., 1988). S. plumieri proteins separated by 2D electrophoresis (according to item 2.3) were transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane for 1 h at 350 mA/100 V. Membrane was blocked in 5% low fat milk, 0.3% tween 20 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Following blockade, membrane was washed with PBS and probed (1 h at 25° C) with a 1:500 dilution of stonefish antivenom. Another washing step was performed and the bound antibodies were probed (1 h, 25 °C) with a diluted peroxidase-conjugated antibody (1:5000 in PBS containing 0.05% tween 20).

A sépsis é uma síndrome clínica que decorre da ativação de uma re

A sépsis é uma síndrome clínica que decorre da ativação de uma resposta inflamatória sistémica desencadeada pela infeção, com consequente lesão tecidular generalizada. Doenças não infeciosas, como a pancreatite aguda, também podem associar-se a um quadro deste tipo, denominado síndrome de resposta inflamatória sistémica (SIRS). A coexistência de SIRS e de infeção é definida como sépsis. A gravidade da

sépsis é estabelecida mediante a existência de disfunção de órgãos e de compromisso hemodinâmico. Daqui surgiram os conceitos de sépsis grave e selleck products de choque séptico para designar as situações de sépsis que cursem com sinais de disfunção orgânica e hipoperfusão tecidular persistente, respetivamente 5. Na realidade sépsis, sépsis grave e choque séptico representam um contínuo de gravidade que culmina na falência múltipla de órgãos, tratando-se de um processo dinâmico e que pode evoluir

rapidamente para as formas mais graves 2 and 6. Os princípios de abordagem do doente séptico assentam no reconhecimento de que a adequada ressuscitação nas primeiras horas permite reduzir a mortalidade de forma significativa. Os principais pilares desta abordagem são a precocidade do diagnóstico e a rapidez e eficácia das Z-VAD-FMK in vitro intervenções terapêuticas instituídas, consistindo fundamentalmente no suporte das funções vitais e no controlo do foco infecioso. Esta estratégia foi subscrita por várias organizações

médicas e mereceu consenso internacional, dando origem a uma campanha à escala global denominada Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) 3, 4, 7 and 8. Esta campanha serviu de mote à instituição de protocolos de atuação a nível local em diversas instituições hospitalares e à organização dos serviços e treino dos profissionais de saúde para atuação neste contexto. A implementação destas medidas demonstrou um impacto positivo nas taxas de mortalidade observadas 9 and 10. Apesar de a sépsis ser um problema transversal em medicina e do interesse crescente da comunidade médica nesta área, a sua real prevalência Adenosine e o seu impacto na prática clínica diária permanecem muitas vezes subestimados. Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar o impacto da sépsis num serviço de gastrenterologia e, simultaneamente, determinar se a abordagem inicial a estes doentes foi a mais adequada, à luz das recomendações vigentes. Foi efetuado um estudo retrospetivo, abrangendo todos os internamentos urgentes ocorridos num serviço de gastrenterologia, durante o período de um ano (de setembro de 2009 a agosto de 2010). O estudo decorreu num hospital terciário, universitário, que integra um serviço de urgência (SU) polivalente. Os doentes admitidos no SU são encaminhados para a urgência geral ou para as diversas especialidades de acordo com a triagem inicial efetuada por enfermeiro, segundo o sistema de Manchester.

4 and 5 It is described that pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokin

4 and 5 It is described that pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, regulate the sequential recruitment of leukocytes and are frequently observed in the tumour microenvironment6 which stimulate the growth and survival of malignant cells.7 Although the role of cytokines in tumour biology has been extensively studied, the literature is still controversial about their effects on cancer biology.8 The mediators and cellular effectors of inflammation are important components of the local tumour environment. In some types of cancer, inflammatory conditions are present before a malignant

check details change occurs, whilst in other types of cancer, an oncogenic change induces an inflammatory microenvironment that promotes the development of tumors.9 The mechanisms of cytokines action in carcinogenesis are of great importance, due

to their involvement in tumour survival. Thus, the inhibition of pro-tumorigenic cytokine may offer an alternative target aimed at the blockage of tumour progression.10 Interleukins (IL)-4, IL-6 and IL-10 GSK J4 datasheet are multifunctional cytokines involved in adaptative and innate immunity cell mediators. The IL-10 is an immunosuppressive molecule secreted by tumours with anti-inflammatory action.11 The role of IL-10 production within the tumour microenvironment still remains controversial. It is debated that IL-10 can favour tumour growth in vitro by stimulating cell proliferation and inhibiting cell apoptosis, 1 which is correlated with poor survival of some cancer patients. 12 and 13 On the other hand, the IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which modulates both the innate and adaptative immune response. 14 IL-6 has been shown to function as a growth factor

in several human tumors 15, 16, 17 and 18 and plays an important role in regulating apoptosis in many cell types. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients produce increased release of IL-6 into Inositol monophosphatase 1 saliva and that IL-6 contributes to carcinogenesis of oral mucosa or maintenance of the condition in OSCC. 19 Also, it is suggested that IL-6 inactivates p53 tumour suppressor gene. 20 In addition, IL-4 is a tumour-promoting molecule which regulates local immune response, usually elevated in human cancer patients. 21 Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the expression of IL-4, IL6 and, IL-10 in an in vitro model of tumorigenesis, 22 which mimics a situation where in situ neoplastic cells of oral carcinoma, are surrounded by benign myoepithelial cells from pleomorphic adenoma in order to correlate the cancer cell growth and the role of these cytokines in regulating the neoplastic process.

, 2008, Deli et al , 2005 and Tóth et al , 2011) The key feature

, 2008, Deli et al., 2005 and Tóth et al., 2011). The key features of the adult BBB result from a sequence of cell:cell Baf-A1 mw interactions during development between the ingrowing vessel sprouts and the associated cells of the NVU (Liebner et al., 2011). When brain microvessels are isolated from adult mammalian brain and brain endothelial cells are cultured from these vessel fragments, they retain many key features of the BBB phe-notype. In 1969, Siakotos and colleagues described for the first

time a method to successfully isolate bovine and human brain endothelial cells (Siakotos et al., 1969). Nearly a decade later, Panula et al. demonstrated the migration of rat brain endothelial cells from isolated capillaries. These cells were able to grow in culture and had strong alkaline phosphatase activity (Panula et al., 1978). Tontsch and Bauer (1989) simplified the culture methods for isolating murine and porcine brain endothelial cells (e.g. avoiding sieving steps, gradient centrifugations) and optimised the culture medium to increase cell yield. They also found that when proliferative factors such as endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS) and heparin were removed from culture medium, the morphology of cells changed from spindle-shape to cobblestone phenotype. Through a series of experiments, DeBault and Cancilla gave evidence for the influence of

astrocytic factors on BBB phenotype of brain endothelial cells (DeBault and Cancilla, 1980a, DeBault and Cancilla, 1980b and DeBault, 1981). These studies led to the development of co-culture models of the BBB (Joó, see more 1985). We chose to develop a porcine BBB model for several reasons: (1) A single pig brain gives a high yield of cells compared to that from rat or mouse. (2) Porcine brains are relatively easy to obtain as they are

a by-product of the meat industry; there is no need to have animal breeding facilities 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl on site to maintain a continuous supply of brain tissue. (3) Porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) generally retain many key features of the BBB following isolation, and the rate of loss of BBB phenotype in culture is less than for rodent or bovine BBB models (Deli et al., 2005), therefore co-culture with astrocytes is not essential to induce functional expression of tight junctions (i.e. high TEER) (Patabendige et al., this issue). (4) The porcine genome, anatomy, physiology and disease progression reflect human biology more closely than many established laboratory animals (Walters et al., 2011). (5) The availability of miniature pigs and novel porcine transgenic disease models make the pig the most suitable animal model to study human disease (Bendixen et al., 2010 and Lunney, 2007). The miniature pig is now a well established ‘large’ mammalian model for pharmacokinetics/toxicology studies (Bode et al., 2010) and is also used for surgical studies to generate organs for xenotransplantation (Vodicka et al., 2005).

Verbal WM/STM is probably

only impaired if DD is accompan

Verbal WM/STM is probably

only impaired if DD is accompanied by reading/verbal difficulties (e.g., with dyslexia). We conclude that the MR theory of DD which is currently dominant in neuroscience research is insufficient to explain pure DD. Hence, there is a need for a paradigm shift in DD research; neuro-imaging studies should now take alternative theories of DD, defined by extensive behavioral research, seriously. Crucially, rather than aiming at reconfirming a single theory of DD, studies should test click here theories against each other. Our data suggests that the most robust dysfunction in DD is that of visuo-spatial STM and WM with the impairment of inhibitory function (interference suppression). Both of these functions have been linked to the IPS. Hence, we suggest that IPS dysfunction in DD is probably related to WM and inhibition impairment. We hypothesize that the WM and inhibition impairments are related to each other and the inhibition function impairment reflects the disruption of a crucial processes of central executive memory function. That is, pure DD could be characterized by the specific impairment of visuo-spatial STM and by the specific impairment of CX-5461 clinical trial the inhibitory processes

crucial to visuo-spatial central executive memory function resulting in poor WM. Future imaging studies of DD should take these cognitive functions into account. Intervention studies could explore whether the above functions can be improved in DD. Spatial processing seems intact

in DD albeit slowly accessible which is probably a consequence of memory/inhibition impairment. This work was supported by Medical Research Council grant G90951 (D.S.). D.S., F.S., A.D. and A.N. designed the study. F.G. contributed to design. F.S. programmed experimental paradigms. A.D., A.N. and F.G. collected the data. F.S. prepared Thymidine kinase the data for analysis. D.S. wrote analysis programmes, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. “
“When a person speaks, we usually expect to hear their voice at the same time as seeing their lips move. Furthermore, if we watch their lips, it often helps us to hear their voice better, via ‘speechreading’ (Sumby and Pollack, 1954). Two distinct kinds of processes are implied by such observations: synchronisation and integration. Firstly, we are sensitive to when auditory and visual events are occurring at the same time (Alais and Carlile, 2005; King, 2005; Kopinska and Harris, 2004; Sugita and Suzuki, 2003). Secondly, the ability to benefit from the combination of modalities, as in speechreading, requires that auditory and visual information be brought together in the brain and integrated.

Neutralized and stained nuclei (from random 100-cells fields) wer

Neutralized and stained nuclei (from random 100-cells fields) were blindly analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (200×). Cells were scored

from 0 (undamaged) to 4 (maximally damaged), according to the tail intensity (size and shape), resulting in a single DNA damage score Afatinib in vivo for each cell, and consequently, for each group. Thus, every group could be ranged for damage index with a value from 0 (all cells no tail, 100 cells × 0) to 400 (all cells with maximally long tails, 100 cells × 4) (Collins et al., 1997). The index of DNA damage was calculated by multiplying the number of cells by its own index score and then summed up its results. Total protein content was determined by the modified method of Lowry as previously described (Peterson, 1977), using BSA as standard. Data are reported as mean ± standard

error mean (S.E.M.) and were analyzed by Student’s t-test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. All analyses were performed using the SPSS program, Version 12.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), FINEP/ Rede IBN01.06.0842-00 and National Institute of Science and Technology for Excitotoxicity and Neuroprotection (INCT-EN). "
“Stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries (Lewis et al., 2008) and the most Belnacasan order frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide (Donnan et al., 2008). Three months following a stroke, 15–30% of stroke survivors are permanently disabled and 20% require institutional care. Deficits can include partial paralysis, difficulties with memory, thinking, language, and movements. STK38 In the western world, over 70% of individuals experiencing a stroke are over 65 years of age. Since life expectancy continues to

grow, the absolute number of individuals with stroke will further increase in the future (Lakhan et al., 2009). Transient global ischemia arises as a consequence of cardiac arrest and causes selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 neurons in humans and can produce serious neurobiological sequellae of which cognitive deficits are most prominent (Lo et al., 2003, Moskowitz et al., 2010, Tanaka et al., 2000 and Merchenthaler et al., 2003; Etgen et al., 2010). Over the last decade, data from many studies support the idea that estrogens provide neuroprotective effects in a variety of focal and global ischemia models (Lebesgue et al., 2009, Merchenthaler et al., 2003, Garcia-Segura et al., 2001, Toran-Allerand, 2004 and Shughrue and Merchenthaler, 2003). The potent feminizing hormone, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), is neuroprotective in a host of cell and animal models of stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.

Vertebral samples from each individual were first crushed in liqu

Vertebral samples from each individual were first crushed in liquid nitrogen. Total cellular RNA was extracted Mitomycin C research buy using TRIzol Reagent (Life Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Total extracted RNA was subjected to DNAse treated (ArcturusPicoPure RNA isolation kit, Life Technologies) and RNA integrity and purity were assessed using a Bioanalyzer 2100 (Agilent Technologies). RNA was quantified using ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop

Technologies Inc.). RNA samples from weeks 0 and 4 were pooled (3 fish per pool) according to sampling time and diet, while fish sampled at week 27 were processed separately (Table 1). Libraries were created using TruSeq Sample Prep Kit v2 (Illumina, USA) following the manufacturer’s instruction. Resulting libraries were quantified using a Bioanalyzer Enzalutamide mouse 2100 (Agilent Technologies).

Samples were multiplexed (6 samples per lane) and sequenced at McGill genomic platform (Montréal, Canada) with HiSeq2000 sequencer and a 100 paired-end (PE) technology. Reads from HiSeq2000 Illumina were processed with Trimmomatic v0.30 (Lohse et al., 2012) to remove low quality (trailing: 20, lowest quality: 30) and short reads (< 60 bp). Trimming also included removal of Illumina adapters together with the most common contamination vectors from UniVec database ( The combined high quality reads (pools/samples) were de novo assembled using the Trinity assembler ( Haas et al., 2013). Sequencing

yielded 185,369,129 reads for each end. Trimming decreased the amount of reads to 141,986,373. Assembly for Illumina 100PE reads led to 679,869 transcripts for a mean length of 542 bp (Table 1). This Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession GBTD00000000. The version described in this paper is the first version, GBTD01000000. From the 679,869 transcripts, 340,737 found homology (Blastn, threshold evalue < 10–4) with referenced ESTs for rainbow trout. Functional annotation revealed that 141,909 and 117,564 transcripts found sequence homology against Nr and Uniprot protein databases, respectively (Blastx, threshold evalue < 10–8). See supplementary file 1 for more details regarding the methods and the results. More information regarding transcripts and matches on Uniprot 4��8C database is provided in a spreadsheet in supplementary data (Supplementary file 2). Besides, a top-hit distribution revealed that transcripts matched mainly with teleost species (Fig. 1A). In addition, Gene Ontology association (GO) resulted in 11,202 assignment from which 93.4%, 91.1% and 85.9% were allocated to cellular components, molecular function and biological process, respectively (see details Fig. 1B). Finally, only 5.4% of the non-matching sequences against Uniprot displayed theoretical ORFs superior to 100 amino acids (see supplementary methods for more details).