To remove SDS, gels were washed with renaturing buffer for 30 min at room temperature and incubation was then performed overnight at 37 °C on a shaking platform in developing this website buffer. Gels were stained with Coomassie blue G-250 in 20% ethanol for 3 h and destained in 25% ethanol. Protease-containing fractions were visualized as clear bands against a dark background. The total repertoire of extracellular proteins was also investigated by mixing biofilm culture supernatants with NuPAGE sample buffer
(Invitrogen) and subjecting them to electrophoresis on 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels under reducing conditions for 1 h at 180 V. Gels were then stained with Coomassie blue according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For the detection of P. aeruginosa elastase, proteins from the gels were electroblotted onto PVDF membranes (Immobilon-P, Millipore) at 50 V for 2 h at 4 °C. After blocking with 5% skim milk in Tris-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween-20,
membranes were incubated first with a rabbit anti α-elastase antibody [a generous gift from Dr J. Fukushima; see also Schmidtchen et al. (2003)] diluted 1 : 750 and then an HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit Ig antibody diluted 1 : 2500. Antibody binding was visualized using the ECL Western blotting reagent (Pierce). The production of extracellular polysaccharides by P. aeruginosa strains was studied using the lectins Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin (HHA) and Marasmium oreades agglutinin (MOA) (recognizing galactose and mannose residues, respectively) click here (Ma et al., 2007). Twenty four-hour biofilms prepared as described below were washed twice in 100 μL PBS and then incubated with MOA or HHA [0.1 mg mL−1 in PBS (7 mM K2HPO4, 2.5 mM KH2PO4, pH 7.3, containing 0.1 M Selleck Fludarabine NaCl)] for 2 h at room temperature. Biofilms were washed four times (100 μL) with PBS before examination
using CLSM. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way anova with a Bonferroni post-test to compare different strains. Investigation of the different P. aeruginosa strains showed that they varied in their ability to form biofilms over 6 h in the flow cells. The clinical isolates (14:2, 23:1, 27:1 and 15159) and PAO1 showed a low degree of biofilm formation (1.5–5% surface coverage), while the type strain NCTC 6750 was a relatively good biofilm former (22% surface coverage) (Fig. 1a). Because we were interested in studying the effect of different P. aeruginosa strains on biofilm formation by S. epidermidis, the ability of a number of different, freshly isolated, S. epidermidis strains to form mono-species biofilms was also investigated. After 6 h of growth in flow cells, the clinical isolates of S. epidermidis showed substantial differences in biofilm-forming ability, with the surface coverage ranging from 0.4–0.2 mm2 for strains Mia, C103, C121 and C164, to 0.009 mm2 for strains C116 and C191 (Fig. 1b).